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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the composition of water in the intracellular & extracellular compartments?
- 60% intracellular

- 40% ECF
75% of extracellular water is _____. What is this space?
- interstitial

- this is the space between cells
intracellular fluid doesn't communicate directly with blood plasma (except RBCs), how does it communicate then?
- communicates via interstitial fluid (part of ECF)
steady state: _______ acting on a substance are ____ over time & the rate of net movement is also constant
- driving forces

- constant
equilibrium: ______ is acting on a substance to force it across a membrane & no net transport of substance occurs
- no net driving force
difference between steady state & equilibrium?
- in steady state there is a net constant driving force & a constant net rate transport of substance

- in equilibrium there is no driving force & no net movement of substance
what is the difference between a passive & active driving force?
- passive: [ ] gradients, electrical gradients (differences in voltage)

- active: ATP consuming acting against [ ] & electrical gradients
how does lipid affect the interstitial ion concentration?
- ions are only present in the aq phase - so when taken over total volume with lipid makes it look like total ion [ ] is lower

- therefore when high plasma lipid, plasma sample is not good estimate of interstitial ion concentration
how do proteins affect the interstitial ion concentration?
- same effect as high lipid, but also neg. charge on protein has effect on ion distribution

- makes it look like the total ion [ ] is lower
what happens to cations with the effect of proteins & lipids in the plasma vs. interstitium?
- for cations the neg. protein & lipid effect nearly cancel each other out

- proteins pulling cations out & lipids are diluting them
what happens to anions with the effect of proteins & lipids in the plasma vs. interstitium?
- for anions both neg. protein & lipid reduce the anion [ ] in the plasma

- makes insterstitium look higher in anions
what is the anion gap?
- in plasma there is a difference between major cations & major anions

- this is due to difference between cations & ignored anions
what is the formula for the anion gap?
- anion gap plasma = [Na]p - ([Cl-] + [HCO3-])
why does the anion gap increase in diseases such as type I diabetes?
- because increased amount of neg. charged metabolites such as acetoacetate & hydroxybutyrate

- this causes more sodium to go into the plasma but we're not measuring those anions so the anion gap increases
what do disorders of extracellular K do?
Any disorder in extracellular [K+] is likely to cause cardiac arrythmias and neuromuscular problems b/c it messes up electrical excitability
what do disorders of Na+ do?
- disturbances in extracellular Na+ can lead to water shifting in or out of neurons

- can lead to seizures, coma or death
what does passive transport require?
1) driving force - [ ] or electrical gradient
2) pathway through membrane
what is unique about Co2, steroids & gaseous anesthetics in terms of their membrane transport?
- because they are lipid soluble they can pass through membranes by simple diffusion
secondary vs. primary active transport?
- primary: driving force comes from hydrolysis of ATP

- secondary: driving force comes by coupling uphill movement to downhill movement of favorable [ ] gradient
what does the alpha subunit of the Na-K pump do?
- alpha subunit lines the pores & hydrolyzes ATP

- 3 Na out for 2 K in
what does osmosis refer to the movement of?
- only water
osmolality: what is it? what are the osmoles of NaCl? glucose?
- total concentration of particles in solution

- NaCl = 2 osmoles

- glucose = 1 osmole
gibbs donnan?
- effect of neg. charged trapped proteins on ion distribution

- neg ions move in them sodium moves in then water follows - generate osmotic gradient