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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
neurons transmit information through _____ and _____ signalling
neurons transmit information through electrical and chemical signalling
explain what happens during depolarization and repolarization.
the resting potential of -70 goes super positive. How? an action potential causes an infllux of Na+ through voltage gated sodium channels. During repolarization, these channels close and potassium channels open, allowing potassium to leave and the cell returns to resting potential
when an action potential reaches a pre synaptic cleft, it causes an influx of what? what does this cause?
it causes an influx of calcium. This calcium forces the neurotransmitter vesicles release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft, which then bind to the postsynaptic membrane, propogating the action potential.
What are the 5 ways drugs can treat CNS disorders?
1. replacement

2. inhibiting breakdown

3. inhibiting reuptake

4. agonism/antagonism

5. nerve stimulation

name 6 symptoms of parkinsons
1. tremor

2. rigidity

3. masklike face

4. bradykinesia

5. postural instability

6. dementia

parkinsons is a chronic movement disorder caused by a disorder in the amount of _____ and _____ in the brain
parkinsons is a chronic movement disorder caused by a discord in the amount of dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain
How does the imbalance of acetylcholine and dopamine specifically cause the symptoms of parkinsons?
1. not enough dopamine means less GABA inhibition

2. too much acetylcholine means more GABA activity

3. high GABA activity leads to the symptoms of parkinsons

how can illicit drug use lead to parkinsons?
drugs can produce a by product called MPTP which can permanently destroy dopamine neurons
T/F environmental toxins, oxidative stress and brain trauma can cause parkiees
drug treatment of PD improves dope acetylcholine balance by?
increasing dope, decreasing ass
What are the 5 classes of drugs that increase dopamine neurotransmision to treat PD?
1. dopamine replacement (L- Dopa)

2. Dopamine agonist

3. dopamine replacer

4. catecholamine-O-Methyltransferase inhibitor

5. MAO-B inhibitor

what is the most effective drug for treating PD?

a) FX of L-Dopa increase as disease progresses

b) L-Dopa passively travels to the brain through the BBB

c) L-Dopa is metabolized into dopamine in the brain

a) false. FX decrease

b) false. l-dopa is transported to the brain through the BBB via a transport protein

c) L-dopa is metabolized into dopamine in the braine, true

what cofactor speeds up the conversion of L-dopa into dopamine in the brain?
vitamin b6
why give l-dopa instead of straight dopamine? 2 reasons.
1. dopamine does not cross the BBB

2. dopamine has a very short half life in the blood

why does l-dopa cause nausea?
dopamine mediated activation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the medulla
why can l-dopa cause cardiac dysrhythmias?
conversion of l-dopa to dopamine can cause activation of cardiac beta-1 receptors
t/f l-dopa can cause dyskinesia, orthostatic hypotension, and psychosis
true true and true
l-dopa given alone is mostly metabolized in the
peripheral tissue (i.e. intestine)
why is l-dopa almost always given with _____
l-dopa is almost always given with carbidopa because carbidopa inhibits peripheral tissue metabolism of l-dopa, allowing more to pass through the BBB, reaching the brain
t/f carbidopa decreases the incidence of diskinesia and psychosis
false. carbidopa decreases the incidence of caridac dysrhythmias, nausea and vomiting
what are the two types of loss of effect someone taking l-dopa may experience
1. wearing off. gradual loss of effect

2. on-off. abrupt loss of effect

when does the wearing off effect of l-dopa occur and what are three ways it can be minimized?
wearing off effect occurs when the end of the dosing interval is near

can be minimized by

1. shortening the dosing interval

2. give a COMT that inhibits l-dopa metabolism

3. add a dopamine agonist to the therapy

t/f wearing off effect can occur when l-dopa levels are high
false. on-off effect can occur when l-dopa levels are high
what are 3 ways the on-off loss of effect of l-dopa can be minimized?
1. taking more frequent doses per day

2. using a controlled release formulation

3. move protein containing meals to the evening

what is the mechanism of action of dopamine agonists
literally just bind to dopamine receptors and activate them, just like dopamine would. not as effective as l-dopa, but used as a first line treatment for those with milder symptoms
name 3 adverse effects of dopamine agonists
1. hallucinations

2. orthostatic hypotension

3. daytime drowsiness

what are the three mechanisms of action of dopamine releasers?
1. releases more dopamine from the presynaptic neuron into the synaptic cleft

2. blocks dopamine reuptake into presynaptic neuron

3. blocks NMDA receptors. this decreases dyskinesia effect of l-dopa

why is l-dopa usually given with a dopamine releaser
dopamine releaser block nmda receptors which reduce diskinesia effect of l-dopa
name 3 adverse fx of dopamine releaser
nausae, vomiting, dizziness
what is the mechanism of action of COMT inhibitors?
COMT adds a methyl group to l dopa and dopamine, rendering them inactive. this inhibits that enzyme and allows more l-dopa to be converted to dopamine
note: all 4 other dopamine increasers can be combined with l-dopa
what is the mechanism of action of MAO B inhibitors
MAO B metabolizes dopamine and l-dopa through oxidation in the brain. MAO B inhibitors stop that

what are the 2 effects of MAO B inhibitors on dopamine?
1. allows more dopamine to be converted from l-dopa

2. allows more dopamine to be available in the presynaptic cleft

t/f At!therapeutic!doses, MAOCB!inhibitors!used!to!treat!Parkinson’s do!not!inhibit!MAOCA!in!the!liver!and!therefore!do!not!cause!hypertensive!crisis!when!patients!eat!tyramineCcontaining foods (
what are the three symptoms of excess acetylcholine specifically? (parkinsons)
1. diaphoresis (excess sweating)

2. salivation

3. urinary incontinence

what is the mechanism of action of cholinergic antagonists for parkinsons, and what three symptoms do they decrease?
they block acetylcholine receptors. they actually increase effectiveness of l-dopa.

they decrease diaphoresis, salivation, and urinary incontinence (pissing involuntarily)

name 2 side FX of anticholinergic drugs
1. dry mouth

2. urinary retention

anticholinergic drugs are reserved for _____ patients
anticholinergic drugs are reserved for younger patients because older patients may experience hallucinations or delirium
who has alzheimers more, men or women?
alzheimers is characterized by a degeneration of ____ neurons in the ______ (brain region) early on
alzheimers is characterized by a degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus early on
t/f a diagnosis of alzheimers cannot be given until after death
what are the two hallmarks of alzheimers?
neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques
how are neurofibrillary tangles formed?
abnormal production of Tau, a MAP that is responsible for forming cross bridges between microtubules
what are neuritic plaques and how do they contribute to alzheimers?
neuritic plaques are found outside of neurons and contain beta amyloids. beta amyloids kill hippcampal cells
t/f mutations in dna can cause alzheimers
those with two copies of ______ are at risk of getting alz. why?
those with two copies of ApoE4 are at higher risk of getting alz. ApoE4 binds to beta amyloids forming neural plaques
patients with mutations in the _____ precursor gene are at higher risk of alz. why?
patients with mutations in the amyloid precursor gene are at higher risk of getting alz. this is because this gene is involved with the production of beta amyloiid in neural plaques
what are the 2 classes of drugs used to treat alz?
cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA receptor antagonists
what is the mechanism of action of cholinesterase inhibitors
they inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase., allowing more acetylcholine to remain in the synaptic cleft to exert its actions
t/f cholinesterase inhibitors can reverse alz
false. they can only increase cholinergic transmission in the healthy neurons left.
describe the action of the NMDA receptor in a non alz patient
normally, NMDA receptors have calcium channels that are gated when magnesium is bound. when glutamate binds to another site, then magnesium leaves and there is calcium influx, which is necessary for learning and memory.
describe the action of the NMDA receptor in an alz patient
in an alz patient there is excess glutamate activity leading to high levels of calcium influx. this is detrimental because it can damage learning and memory and degrade neurons
how do nmda receptor antagonists work?
they block the calcium channel opening such that calcium cannot enter the cell even when there is excess glutamate activity
t/f patients with shizo dont have multiple personalities but are violent
false. niggaz with schiz dont have mult pers and arent violent
positive symptoms ____ or _____ normal neurological function.

negative symptoms have a _____ of normal neurological function

exaggerate or distort

have a loss of

name 4 risk factors for schizophrenia
1. family history

2. drug abuse - meth pcp and lsd

3. low birth weight

4. low iq

how does schizo affect basal ganglia?
thought to play a role in paranoi and hallucinations
how does schizo affect frontal lobe?
difficulty planning and organizing thoughts
limbic system schiz?
occipital lobe schiz?
reading images, recognizing motion
auditory system schiz?
hippocamous schiz?
learning and memory, which are decreased in schiz
drugs that block the dopaminergic neurons increase/decrease some of the positive symptoms of schizo
decrease some of the positive symptoms of schizo
patients with schizo have more ____ receptors and less _____receptors in the _________
patients with schizo have more 5HT1A receptors and less 5HT2A receptors in the frontal cortex
patients with schizo have an increased/decreased number of NMDA receptors in their brain
decreased number of nmda receptors in their brain
in a brain scan for schiz, what would you expect the size of

a) ventricles

b) frontal lobe activity

a) increased ventricle size

b) decreased frontal lobe activity

what are the two classes of drugs used to treat schiz?
conventional antipsychotics, atypical antipsychotics
conventional antipsychotics act by blocking _____ receptors in the ______ region of the brain
conventional antipsychotics act by blocking dopamine receptors in the mesolimbic region of the brain
conventional antipsychotics are better at treating the postive/negative symptoms of schiz rather than the negative/positive ones


what are extrapyrimidal symptoms
movement disorders that resemble the symptoms of parkinsons
name 4 extrapyrimidal symtoms
1. acute distonia

2. parkinsinism- treat with antichol not l dopa

3. akathesia

4. tardive diskinesia- switch to atypical antipsy

what is the mechanism of action of atypical antipsychotics
they block dopamine, 5ht1a and 5ht2a receptors.
what receptors do atypical antipsychotics block the least
what are 3 advatnages of atypical antipsychotics over conventional
1. same efficacy against positive symptpms

2. more effective against negative symptoms

3. lower risk of extrapyrimidal symptoms

t/f conventional antipsychotics cause weight gain
false. antipsychotics do.