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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is drug disposition?

How humans respond to drugs

What are the 4 parameters determining drug disposition (how humans respond to drugs)?

1. Clearance

2. VD

3. Elimination half life

4. Bioavailability

Why is plasma a good site to measure drug concentrations?

1. it is non-invasive

2. there is a good correlation between plasma concentration and therapeutic and toxic effects of drugs

Do we measure free drug concentration, protein bound drug concentration, or both?

both. we measure both, it's easiest.

What does Cmax on the concentration time curve for oral administration represent?

time point when rate of drug absorption = rate of drug elimination

Define the MEC

MEC is the minimum effective concentration. It is the minimum concentration required for the drug to have a therapeutic effect.

Define duration

Length of time the drug is above the MEC

Define toxic concentration

concentrations which induce toxic side effects of the drug

define therapeutic range/window

drug concentrations above the MEC but below the toxic concentration. the goal of pharmacotherapy is to attain plasma concentrations in the therapeutic range

What precautions are taken with drugs that have small therapeutic windows?

Therapeutic monitoring. Trough blood samples must be taken, that is, a blood samples taken prior to the next dose of the drug.

What is lag time?

Time it takes for drug to reach MEC

Rate of absorption determines _______

Amount of absorption determines ________

drug onset of action

intensity of drug action

In intravenous injections, what rate is used against time, instead of absorption rate?

infusion rate

what is steady state concentration?

When infusion rate = elimination rate. The plasma concentration does not change over time.

Injection of IV Bolus follows what order kinetics?

First. Rate of drug metabolism/elimination is dependent on drug concentration

How is steady state concentration achieved in repeated dosing?

Steady state concentrations are achieved when the peak and trough concentrations are (relative to each other) the same between doses.

With regards to repeated dosing, what is the goal of pharmacotherapy.

The goal of pharmacotherapy is for fluctuations at steady state to be within the therapeutic range

name and describe the 3 ways to reduce plasma concentration fluctuations

1. use continuous IV infusions

- allows constant drug levels (no peaks and troughs)

2. use depot preparations

- allows drug to be absorbed slowly over time, minimizing peaks and troughs

3. Change dosing interval

- smaller but more frequent doses minimize peaks and troughs better than larger but more spaced out doses

Define Clearance

efficiency of irreversible drug elimination from the body. Volume of blood cleared per unit time (mL/min)

What is total clearance

Sum of clearance by all routes of elimination (i.e. hepatic clearance + renal clearance, etc.)

What is the dosing rate equation

Dosing rate = target plasma concentration x clearance

Define half life, and the half life equation.

Time it takes for plasma concentrations to decrease to 50%

T1/2 = 0.693Vd / Clearance

What are the two reasons knowing a drug's half life is important

1. It determines time it takes for the drug to reach steady state

2. It determines time it takes for drug levels to decline once administration has ceased

when the ______ dose of a drug is administered _________, it takes ____ half lives to reach steady state

when the same dose of a drug is administered repeatedly, it takes 5 half lives to reach steady state concentration

time to steady state concentration is dependent/independent of the dose size, but actual steady state concentration is dependent/independent of the dose size

time to steady state concentration is independent of the dose size, but actual steady state concentration is dependent of the dose size

if a drug has a particularily long half life, what can be done to reach steady state concentrations faster?

A loading dose can be given.

What is the calculation for a loading dose?

Loading dose = target plasma concentration * Vd

how many half lives does it take to remove most of a drug from the body?


How many half lives does it take to remove all the molecules of a drug from the body? Why is this important?

9. This is important for those with allergies, as allergic reactions still occur when there are a couple of molecules in the system