• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define pharmacokinetics

The study of drug movement in the body

Rate of absoprtion determines _________, while the amount of absorption determines ________

how quickly the drug effect will occur, how intense the drug effect will be

What are the 6 factors affecting rate of absorption?

1. Rate of dissolution

2. Surface area

3. Blood Flow

4. Lipid Solubility

5. pH partitioning

6. Activity of Drug Transport Proteins

Explain how rate of dissolution affects absorption

Drugs must be dissolved in solution before they can become absorbed. Drugs that can disintegrate and dissolve (have a faster rate of dissolution) will have a greater rate of absorption, and thereby a faster onset of action

What is the greatest determinant for rate of drug absorption?

Surface Area

What are the components of the stomach and intestine that add to their surface area? Which one has greater SA?

Stomach has folds called rugae. Intestine has fingerlike projections called villi. Intestine has greater SA, so most drug absorption occurs there.

Areas with _____ blood flow maintain a _______ _______ that drives absorption

Areas with high blood flow maintain a concentration gradient which drives absorption

What is a factor that can increase blood flow?


What are conditions that can decrease blood flow?

Heart failure, hypotension, hypothermia, circulatory shock

Explain how pH partitioning affects aborption

If there is a pH difference between the region of absorption and the blood, such that the drug is ionized in the blood, becoming ion trapped, then rate of absorption will increase

_____ transporters increase rate of absorption, whilst _______ transporters decrease ROA

Uptake, Efflux

Categorize the 8 routes of administration based on enteral, parenteral, and other

What is the most common route of administration?


Name 2 advantages and disadvantages with oral administration

Ad: safe, convenient, also economical

Dis: Often incomplete absorption, also variable absorption between patients

What is the surface area of the intestine?

200 meters squared

Marzopam, a weakly acidic drug, is orally ingested. Where is most of the drug likely to become absorbed? Why?

Small intestine. Even though it is unionized in the stomach and ionized in the small intestine, the SA of the stomach is much smaller in comparison, and also the stomach has a layer of mucous, leading to greater absorption in the intestine

What is the pharmaceutical phase?

Occurs after a drug is orally ingested. The drug must undergo disintegration phase, into granules, then small particles. Then it must undergo dissolution phase and dissolve in the gastric solution. If it cannot do this, absorption is reduced.

Define gastric emptying

movement of stomach contents to the intestine

Why is it that factors that increase gastric emptying increase rate of absorption?

Because absorption is greater in the intestine than the stomach

What are factors that increase gastric emptying?

1. taking medications on an empty stomach

2. taking medications with cold water

3. lying down on the right side

4. High osmolality/tube feeding

5. Taking a prokinetic drug, which is a drug that increase gastrointestinal motility

What are factors that decrease gastric emptying?

1. Eating a high fat meal

2. Heavy Excercise

3. Lying down on the left side

4. Taking a drug that inhibits the vagus nerve, for example, anticholinergic drugs

What is an enteric coating?

A special coating that prevents drug disintegration and dissolution in the acidic environment of the stomach

How are enteric coatings useful?

They are useful for drugs that can be destroyed by the acidic environment of the stomach, and also drugs that can damage the stomach itself

Define bioavailability

the fraction of a dose of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged

What are three factors that affect bioavailability?

1. Drug formulation

2. Route of Administration

3. Degree of Metabolism

What are the 9 oral drug formulations, in order of decreasing bioavailability

ASS can get captured, contracting each tricep

Aqueous Solution



chewable tablet



compressed tablet

enteric coated tablets

time release capsules

Which drug formulations have no dissolution phase?

Aqueous solution, syrup

Which drug formulations have slower disintegration phases?

Enteric coated tablets, Time release capsules

How are sublingually adminstered drugs absorbed?

A drug is placed underneath the tongue. The drug passes through the oral mucosa, which then goes into the superior vena cava, directly to the heart. They still disintegrate and dissolve.

T/F injected, sublingual and pulmonary adminstered drugs avoid first pass metabolism


What method of administration would you apply if you wanted a drug to act at the heart?

Sublingual. Oral mucosa feeds into the superior vena cava which goes directly into the heart.

What is special about transdermally administered drugs?

They have a degree of both lipophilicity and hydrophilicity. Lipophilicity to penetrate the epidermis, and hydrophilicity to dissolve into the ECF

What is one advantage and one disadvantage with transdermal preparations? How can the disadvantage be recitified?

Advantage is they provide constant drug plamsa levels with minimal peaks and troughs.

Disadvantage is this may induce tolerance, which is recitifed by enforcing drug free periods of 6-10 hours per day.

What are the 5 factors that affect transdermal absorption, and in which way?

1. Thickness of skin - Thicker the skin, slower the absorption

2. Hydration - Greater Skin Hydration, greater absorption

3. Hair follicles - More hair follicles, greater absorption (more areas for drugs to bypass)

4. Area of application - Greater area, greater absorption

5. Integrity of the skin barrier - psoriasis and burned skin can lead to greater transdermal drug absorption

Your patient is vomiting and you need to give him a drug, what route of administration do you choose?


T/F rectally administered drugs bypass the liver

Both. 50% do.

What are 2 disadvantages of rectal administration

incomplete drug absorption, and suppositories may irritate the rectal mucosa

Where are IV injections adminsitered on the body

In a peripheral vein either on the back of the hand, or the median cubital vein on the elbow

What are the 2 methods of IV administration?

IV bolus - single dose over a short period of time

IV drip- continuous dose administered over a long period of time.

which method of administration often has drugs dissolved in a 'vehicle'?

IV drip

Name 4 advantages of IV

1. 100% bioavailability

2. Easy to control dosage and duration of action

3. Allows administration of poorly soluble drugs

4. Allows injection of drugs that are irritants (drugs won't reach a high enough concentration to produce irritation)

Name 4 disadvantages of IV

1. Expenseive, invasive, inconvenience

2. Drug cannot be removed once injected

3. Risk of infection and fluid overload

4. Risk of injecting wrong formulation

What is subcutaneous injection and what are its barriers to absorption?

The drug is injected beneath the skin into the subcutaneous tissue. The only barrier to absorption is the capilliary wall

What are 2 factors that affect rate of subcutaneous absorption?

Rate of blood flow and water solubility of drug

What is the barrier to absorption of IM injections?

Capillary wall

What are 2 factors that affect rate of IM absorption?

Rate of blood flow and water solubility of drug

What are 2 advantages of IM injections

1. can be used to administer poorly soluble drugs

2. can be used to administer depot preparations (preparations in which drug is absorbed slowly over time)

Rank these in order of decreasing blood flow

vastus lateralis, gluteal, deltoid

1. Deltoid

2. Vastus lateralis

3. gluteal

Where are inhaled drugs absorbed?

Pulmonary epithelium

Why is pulmonary absorption so rapid?

Large SA of lungs

What route of administration is most common for general anaesthetics?