• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

define adverse drug reactions

the unintended and undesired responses from drugs

what percent of people admitted to hospitals are admitted for ADRs?


T/F side effects are unexpected


t/f side effects occur at therapeutic doses/toxic doses


what are two reasons side effects occur?

poor specificity and selectivity of the drug

how does antihistamine treat allergies?

antihistamines bind to H1 receptors on sinus arteries, this causes vasoconstriction of the vasodilated arteries, removing the allergic symtoms.

How are side effects by antihistamine occurred?

one of the main reasons side effects occur is because the drug has poor selectivity/specificity for receptors. in the case of antihistamine, it binds to receptors in the brain as well, causing drowsiness, dry mouth and urinary retention.

define drug toxicity

any severe adverse drug event

T/F drug toxicity is often mediated by overdose


drug toxicity reactions are often extensions of?

the therapeutic effect

What is an example of drug toxicity?

too much insulin can cause hypoglycemia

what are allergic reactions mediated by?

the immune system

allergic reaction requires prior...


explain how allergic reactions will initiate

an allergen will sensitize the mast cell, which causes it to produce antibodies to that drug. the next time this allergen comes into contact, the antibodies will bind to the allergen and cause the release of histamines. these histamines cause the allergic reactions of rashes, itches, and anaphylaxis

Intensity of allergic reactions are dependent/independent of drug concentration

independent. you only need a couple of molecules to start the response

____ % of all ADRs are related to allergic rxn


What is the most common class of drugs that causes allergies? Name 2 others.


2 others are NSAIDs and sulfonamides

which area of the body is most susceptible to allergic rxn? least?

most is the trunk. least is the extremeties + head

what are idiosyncratic reactions?

reactions that occur rarely and unpredicably in the population

what accounts for the majority of idiosyncratic reactions?

genetic polymorphisms

the majority of polymorphisms causing idiosyncratic reactions occur in what?

drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transport proteins

approximately what percent of what race has a polymorphism that decreases the metabolism of CYP2C9?

15% of caucasians have a polymorphism that decreases the metabolic activity of CYP2C9

what percent of what race(s) have a polymorphism that makes them poor metabolizers of codeine in CYP2D6

10% of caucasians and africans

what percent of patients have decreased TPMT activity? what percent have no activity? what does this cause?

10% and 0.3%. this can cause increased bone marrow suppression

What is OATP1B1, and what does the polymorphism cause. what percent of which race have it?

OATP1b1 is an uptake transporter in the liver. polymorphism causes decreased function,which leads to higher free drug concentrations and myopathy in some cases. 15% of asians and caucasions have it.

What is DES?

diethylstilbestrol was a drug used to prevent spontaneous abortion, but was pulled off the shelves because it caused vaginal cancer

what is a mutagenic drug?

a drug is able to change the DNA

a mutgenic drug is also often a

carcinogen or teratogenic

How are drugs tested to be mutagens? What is the process?

by the Ames test. this test evaluates the ability of the test drug to cause a mutation in a specialized strain of bacteria.

What are teratogenic drugs? name 2 characteristics for this.

drugs that are known to produce birth defects and impair fertility

What 3 factors encompass birth defects

1. physical deformations

2. behavioral defects

3. metabolic defects

explain how sensitivity to teratogens changes throughout the pregnancy

during the first trimester, the baby is most susceptible to changes, and deformations of gross anatomy may occur. In the second and third trimesters, teratogens disrupt gross function as opposed to anatomy.

When is transfer of drugs greatest across the placental barrier? Name 2 reasons why.

Transfer of drugs across the placental barrier is greatest in the third trimester. This is because as the fetus develops, the surface area for placental transfer increases, and also because the placenta gets thinner

Describe category A in the pregnancy risk categories

human studies have shown there is no risk to fetus throughout pregnancy

Describe category B in the pregnancy risk categories

2 options

1. animal studies have shown no risk to the fetus but there are no human studies


2. animal studies have shown there is risk to the fetus but human studies have shown no risk

Describe category C in the pregnancy risk categories

Animal studies have shown no risk to the fetus but there are no human studies

potential risks outweigh benefits

Describe category D in the pregnancy risk categories

human studies have shown risk to he fetus

potential risk outweights benefits

Describe category X in the pregnancy risk categories

Studies in both animals and humans have shown risk to fetus

potential risks outweigh benefits

these drugs should never be used in pregnant women

What is the most sensitive part of the body in terms of defects during pregnancy? What two defects can occur?

The CNS. Neural tube defects and mental retardation can occur.

name 6 places organ specific drug toxicity can occur

kidney , lung, liver, heart, muscle, inner ear

what are the 2 most common organs for organ specific drug toxicity?

liver and heart

What is the most common reason for a drug to be removed from the market? Why?

Hepatotoxic effects. The liver could metabolize them into more toxic compounds, which can cause liver injury.

t/f some hepatotoxic drugs are administered to patients


what 2 enzymes are measured for to determine levels of liver toxicity? where?

AST and ALT levels are measured in the blood. they should be low in a healthy person.

Name some signs of liver toxicity. What happens to blood levels of AST and ALT?

jaundice, dark urine, light colored stool, and a toxic liver will elicit an increased amount of AST and ALT released into the blood

What is the QRS complex? What is the T wave?

QRS complex on an ECG is the rapid depolarization of ventricles. The t wave is the repolarization of ventricles

What does the QT interval represent? What can prolongation cause?

it represents the time it takes for the ventricles to repolarize.

Prolongation of this can cause the development of a condition called torsades de pointes, a form of verntricular arrhythmia

T/F women have longer QT intervals than men


patients with low sodium levels should take drugs that prolong the QT interval with caution

false. low potassium levels

name the therapeutic use and withdrawal effects of opiates

Therapeutic use is analgesia

Withdrawal effects include anorexia, weakness, muscle spasms

Name the therapeutic use and withdrawal effects of opiates

TU: anxiety

Withdrawal: panic, insomnia, anxiety, convulsions

Name the therapeutic use and withdrawal effects of beta blockers

TU: hypertension, decrease heart rate

withdrawal: increased heart rate, heart attack, arrhythmia

what is the most common cause of adverse drug reactions?

medication errors

what are medication errors caused by health care pros called?

iatrogenic errors

what is a dispensing error?

the pharmacist dispenses the wrong drug

what is an administration error and who makes this error?

when the wrong dose of a drug is administered. either the health care pro or the patient makes this error

what is a patient error?

when the patient understands the instructions but doesnt follow them

confusion over drug naming represents what % of medication errors?


what should we write instead of IU?


what do q.d. and q.o.d. stand for?

every day and every other day. write them out.