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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the hardware within a computer system or smartphone which carries out the instructions of a computer program ?


What does CPU stand for?

Central processing unit

When talking about a CPU what does ALU stand for?

Arithmetic logic unit

What are the 3 main components of a CPU

Control unit, Memory unit and ALU

When talking about a CPU what is the function of the ALU?

performs arithmetic and logical operations

When talking about a CPU what is the function of the control unit?

extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them

Complete the cycle of the CPU – Fetch…..

Fetch, decode, execute

Where does the CPU fetch instructions from

Main memory (RAM)

When talking about a computer system what is memory? 5

A temporary storage

What 3 things might you find stored in Memory?

Instructions, Commands and the operating system

What does RAM stand for?

Random Access Memory

What does ROM stand for?

Read Only Memory

What is stored in ROM?

The boot files for the computer

Name 2 differences between RAM and ROM?

Ram is Volatile, ROM is non Volatile, contents of RAM change frequently, contents of ROM never change

What is the type of memory used in the main memory ?


When referring to computer memory what is meant by Random Access?

You can write anywhere in that memory space at any time

When discussing memory what is meant by volatile?

It requires power and loses its content if there is no power

Is RAM volatile or non-volatile?


What is virtual memory?

A part of the hard drive used as memory when memory has become full

When would you need to use virtual memory?

If memory is full. When you want to open a program that doesn't fit in remaining memory space.

What does 3MGz mean?

It is the clockspeed of the computer, it can complete 3 million cycles per second

How does cache size affect the performance of a computer?

The larger the size of the cache, the more instructions can fit in it, the quicker the CPU can process the instructions

A computer has a quad core processor, what does this mean?

The computer has 4 separate cores, each capable of running cycles, so more cycles can be run simultaneously ge frequently, contents of ROM never change

NOT (1) =


1 AND (NOT 1) =


1 OR ( 1 AND (NOT 0)) =


What is a bit?

A single 1 or 0

What is a byte?

8 bits

How many bytes are in a kilobyte?


How many kilobytes in a megabyte?


How does having more RAM improve the performance of a computer?

It can load more programs and data at the same time

Name the type of secondary storage that is built into a computer system T!D

Hard disk drive, magnetic hard disk r> T!D

Is a hard disk drive volatile or non volatile? n

Non-volatile tr>

Finish the sequence bytes, kilobytes……

Megabyte, gigabyte, terabyte, petabyte,

What is optical storage?


What does DVD stand for?

Digital video disc

Who might use Flash Memory and why?

Anyone who needs to transfer data from one place to another

What type of memory does a USB stick use?

Flash memory or Solid State memory

Flash memory is also known as what?

Solid state memory

What does the SD stand for in SD card W

Secure digital

What type of memory is used in smartphones and tablets?

Flash memory

What does the RW stand for in DVD-RW?


What is the difference between a DVD-R and a DVD-RW

DVD-R can only be written to once

What is a solid state drive?

A form of flash memory, portable storage that does not use magnetic tape like a HDD ml>

What is cloud storage?

Online storage

What is 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of cloud storage

Cheap; automatically backed up; secure, extendable, Relies on internet access, requires password access; speed depends upon the internet connection speed

What is an input device?

A device used to get data into the computer system

What is an output device?

A device that displays or communicates the processed data

Do input devices deal with analogue or digital data?


Name a type of input device that could be used by someone who is blind

Braille keyboard, microphone (voice recognition)

What input devices would a central heating system use?

Temp sensor (thermometer), timer, dial, keypad

What am I: I am used to control wheelchairs and to remotely control lights, security cameras and robots. I am used in home entertainment systems like the XBOX and PS3.

Joystick – games controller

What type of device is a digital camera?

Input device

Name 2 features of a hard drive

Large capacity, fairly cheap, magnetic storage, not portable

Name 2 features of a CD-ROM

Small and portable, can be used on most devices, Read only so cannot be copied over, small capacity PS3.

Name 2 features of a solid state drive

Very portable, good for carrying work.

Give an example of magnetic storage >

Hard drive, magnetic tape

State 2 functions of an operating system

Provide a user interface. Provide a platform for applications to run. Perform memory management, perform file/disk management

Name 2 different operating systems

Windows, iOS, Android, Linux, Ubuntu

Explain multi-tasking

Allows more than 1 process to run at the same time in order to maximize computer resources.

Name 2 utility programs and their uses

System cleanup - (Searches for and) deletes files/programs which are no longer used Automatic update - Checks on the (software manufacturer's site on the) Internet for newer versions of programs which are installed Disk defrag - cleanup the hard drive, move files, Anti Virus

Why would a company need custom written software?

IF software does not exist to do the job the company wants. If the software that does exist doesn't do exactly what they need

What do we mean by Off the Shelf software?

Software that is available in shops

Give an example of off the shelf software

Excel, Access, Word etc

State two features of open source software

Is free to use, lots of people contribute to it, doesn't need a license

What is a pixel?

The smallest element of an image – dots that make up an image on a screen

How many bits does ASCII use?

7 or 8 bits (either is right)

How many bits does Unicode use?

16 or 32 bits (either is right)

What do we call the list of characters a computer can represent

Character set

Give an example of metadata stored with an image

Height, Width, Resolution, Colour depth, date it was produced

What do we call the smallest part of an image

A pixel

What is a method of describing a program using proper English rather than a programming language


What is the connection between sample rate, quality of sound and file size?

The higher the sample rate, the better quality of file, the larger the file size

What two parts is an instruction split into?

The operator (instruction part) and the operand (the data part)

What is software? ->

Programs that run on the computer

Why do we use compression when sending files over the Internet ?

Reduce transmission times, save storage space

What type of software is needed for a computer to communicate with a device such as a printer

Device driver – driver software

Assembly language is also known as…

A low level language

In what language do mnemonics make an appearance?

Assembly language

What language do machines understand?

Binary/Machine language

State two features of an IDE

Source code editor/error diagnostics and debugger/run-time environment/translator

A sequence is when…

Instructions are executed one after the other

Selection is when…

The path through the program is decided by looking at a condition (IF statement)

Iteration is when…

The programs repeats commands until a critieria has been met (Loop)

What is the difference between a FOR loop and a WHILE loop

With a FOR loop we know how many times the loop will run before the code is run, with a WHILE loop the user can choose to stop the loop or keep repeating

What is the difference between a variable and a constant?

A variables value can change in the program, a constant cannot change

Define an Array

A set of variables with the same name (identifier)

What is a variable?

An identifier that points to a place in memory

What is a syntax error

A mistake which breaks the grammar of the programming language

What is a logic error

The program will run, however it does not give you the result you expected