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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the ALU?

The ALU or Arithmetic logic unit, performs
arithmetic and logical operations.

These can be found in CPUs and GPUs.

The CPU is made up of 3 parts, what are they?

Control unit, Immediate Access Storage and
the ALU.

What is the function of the Control Unit?

Extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them.

What is the F-D-E?

Fetch, decode, execute. This is when the CPU fetches the instruction, stores in in the IAS, then it is decoded to machine code and executed to carry out the operation.

Where does the CPU fetch instructions from?

The Random Access Memory (RAM).

What 3 things might you find stored in Memory?

Instructions, Commands, operating
systems, software and utilities.

What does ROM stand for and what does it do?

- Read Only Memory

- The boot files for the computer


-Flash Memory, Quick Access

Name 2 differences
between RAM and ROM?

- Ram is Volatile

- ROM is Non-Volatile

- RAM change frequently

- ROM never changes

When referring to
computer memory what is meant by Random Access?

You can write anywhere in that memory space at any time.

When discussing memory what is meant by volatile?

It requires power and loses its content if there is no power.

This is usually RAM.

What is virtual memory?

A part of the hard drive used as memory when memory has become full.

When would you need to use virtual memory?

A section of a computer storage drive which is temporarily used as RAM.

What does 3MGz mean and what is Over-Clocking?

It is the Clock Speed of the computer, it can
complete 3 million cycles per second.

Over-Clocking is the process of pushing the speed and power over the hardware limit.

What is Cache Memory and How does cache size affect the performance of a

The Cache stores future requests and
instructions to be executed.

The larger the size of the cache, the more

instructions can fit, the quicker the CPU can
process the instructions.

Multi-Core Processers?

The computer has 2+ separate cores, which are each capable of running cycles.

This is so more cycles can be run

NOT (1) =


1 AND (NOT 1) =


1 OR ( 1 AND (NOT 0)) =


What is a bit?

A single 1 or 0

What is a byte?

8 bits

How does having more RAM improve the
performance of a

It can load more programs and data at the same time, but only if the instructions to boot them are stored.

What is optical storage?

CDs and DVDs.

What does DVD stand for?

Digital video Disc

Who might use Flash Memory and why?

Anyone who needs to transfer data from one place to another and can access it quickly, but keep it small enough to transport easily.

What type of memory does a USB stick use?

Flash memory.

What does the SD stand for in SD card?

Secure digital, Card

What does the RW stand for in DVD-RW?


What is the difference
between a DVD-R and a DVD-RW?

DVD-R can only be written once.

What is a solid state drive?

A form of flash memory, portable storage that does not use magnetic tape like a HDD.

What is cloud storage?

Online storage.

What is an input device?

A device used to transfer data into the computer

What is an output device?

A device that displays or communicates the
processed data.

What input devices would a central heating

system use?

Temp sensor
(thermometer), timer, dial, keypad.

Name 2 features of a hard drive.

Large capacity, fairly cheap, magnetic storage, not


Name 2 features of a

Small and portable, can be used on most devices.

Name 2 features of a solid state drive.

Very portable, good for

carrying work.

Give an example of

magnetic storage.

Hard drive, magnetic tape.

State functions of an operating system.

- Provides a GUI.

- Provide a platform for applications to run.

- Perform memory management.

-perform file/disk management.

Name some Operating Systems

Windows, iOS, Android, Linux, Ubuntu.

Name Utility programs

and their uses.

System Clean-up - Searches + deletes files/
programs which are no longer used.

Automatic Update - Checks the Internet for new versions of programs which are installed.

Disk defragment - cleanup the hard drive, move files, Anti Virus.

Give an example of

off-the-shelf software.

Excel, Access, Word etc.

Two features of
open-source software.

- Is free to use

- lots of people contribute to it

- Doesn't need a license

What is a pixel?

The smallest element of an image – dots that make up an image on a screen.

How many bits does ASCII use?

7 or 8 bits (either is right)

How many bits does Unicode use?

16 or 32 bits (either is right)

Why do we use
compression when sending files over the Internet?

Reduce transmission times + save storage space.

What type of software is needed for a computer to communicate with a device such as a printer?

Device driver/driver

Assembly language is also known as…

A low level language.

In what language do

mnemonics make an

Assembly language

What language do
machines understand?

Binary/Machine language

Features of an IDE.

- Source code editor

- Error diagnostics and debugger

- Run-time environment/translator

A sequence is when…

Instructions are executed one after the other.

Selection is when…

The path through the
program is decided by looking at a condition (IF statement).

Iteration is when…

The programs repeats commands until a critieria has been met (Loop).

What is the difference
between a FOR loop and a WHILE loop.

With a FOR loop we know how many times the loop will run before the code is run, with a WHILE loop the user can choose to stop the loop or keep repeating.

What is the difference

between a variable and a constant?

A variables value can change in the program, a constant cannot change.

Define an Array

A set of variables with the same name


What is a variable?

An identifier that points to a place in memory.

What is a syntax error?

A mistake which breaks the grammar of the

programming language.

What is a logic error?

The program will run,
however it does not give you the result you

What is a Program


A register that contains the instruction address,
awaiting execution.
What is the Accumulator?

A register in which

intermidiate arithmetic and

logic results are stored.

What is the (MAR) Memory Address Register?
Memory section which
contains the address of
future fetched instructions.
What is the Memory Data Register?
A Register of a computers control unit that contains data to be stored in the computers storage.

What is the Current Instruction Register?

Storage for current

decoding or executing


What is Pipelining and how does it work?

It is the operation of a sequential order of execution, so after one executed, the next one begins.

What is Thrashing?

This is when a HDD is over-worked by moving

information between system Memory and

Virtual Memory excessively.

This affects the performance speed of the

system, and more RAM should be added to fix this.

Primary vs. Secondary Memory

Primary Memory is the area in a computer in which data is stored for quick access by the
computer's processor. (RAM)

Secondary memory is where programs and data are kept on a long-term basis. Common
secondary storage devices are the hard disk and optical disks.

What is Paging?
It is a way of using virtual memory to find and use data immediately when needed.
Von Neumann Architecture
Advantages and Disadvantages


- Flexible between instructions and data that

occupy the same memory.

- The organisation of this memory is in the handsof programmers.


- Thewhole execution process is slower

-One bus is a bottleneck and so only one set of

information can be access at the same time.

Harvard Architecture
Uses physical separate storage and signal
pathways for instructions and data.

Harvard Architecture

Advantages and Disadvantages


- Allows parallel access between the two

- Both the data and instruction are accessed inthe same way.


- Free memory cannot be used for instructions.

- Expensive to build and develop.


Part 1

CISC stands for Complex
Instruction Set.

Computers and RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set


Part 2


- Has more complex hardware

- More complicated software code


- Has simpler hardware

- More compact software code

GPUS (Graphic Processing Unit)

A specialized electronic circuit designed to

rapidly manipulate and alter memory to

accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display.

What is Segmentation?

Memory segmentation is the
division of a
computer's primary memory into segments or


Buffers and Interrupts

Buffers are a section of physical memory
storage which is used to store data while it is being moved from one place to another.

Interrupts are a type of signal of which calls the attention over of the CPU to thehardware

Stacks and Queues
Stack are Last in, First Out and Queues are Last in, Last Out.

Types Of Operating Systems

Part 1

Real Time- Managing the resources of the

computer so that a particular operation

executes in precisely the same amount of time, every time it occurs.

Single User- This type of operating system only has to deal with one person at a time, running one user application at a time.

Virtual Machines

A virtual machine is an emulation of a

particular computer system. Virtual machines operate based on the computer architecture and functions of a real or hypothetical computer, and their implementations may involve

specialized hardware, software, or a

combination of both.

Application Software

Application software can be divided into two general classes: systems software and

applications software. Applications software include such things as database programs, word processors, Web browsers and spreadsheets.

Stages of Compilation

1. Source program preprocessing

2. Source program compiling

3. Assembly program assembling

4. Machine instructions linking

5. Executable code

The Compiler is a computer program which scans the entire program at one time and then coding into machine code. Then the
computers processor executes the program.
The Interpreter first converts higher level
language into an intermediate and scans the program line by line and suddenly stops, then shows errors and doesn't scan further.
E.g. Languages like MATLAB, Ruby uses

Assemblers are used to convert lower level
language into the machiner code and
usually used in micro processor.

A linker or link editor is a computer program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single
executable file, library file, or another object file.
A simpler version that writes its output directly to memory is called the loader, though
loading is typically considered a separate
Programming Paradigms
A programming paradigm is a style or “way” of programming. Some languages make it easy to write in some paradigms but not others.
Procedural Languages
Procedural language is a type of computer
programming language that specifies a series of well-structured steps and procedures within its programming context to compose a program.
Language (LMC)

A low-level symbolic code converted by an




Simula was the first object-oriented
programming language. Java, Python, C++, Visual Basic.NET and Ruby are the most popular OOP languages today.

Lossy and Lossless


Lossless compression means that as the file size is compressed, the picture quality remains the same - it does not get worse.

Lossy compression permanently removes data.


Hashing is the transformation of a string of characters into a usually shorter fixed-length

value or key that represents the original string.

Relational Database
A database which can have it's tables linked to limit referential integrity and use the data from one, in another.
Flat File

A flat file database is a database which, when not being used, is stored on its host computer system as an ordinary, non-indexed "flat" file.

Primary Keys, Foreign Keys and Secondary Keys

A primary key is a key in a relational database that is unique for each record.

A foreign key is a field in one table that
uniquely identifies a row of another table.

Secondary Keys are an entity may have one or more choices for the primary key.

Entity Relationship,

Normalisation and


An entity relationship modelis a graphical
representation of entities and their
relationships to each other.

Normalisation is the process of organizing the columns and tables of a relational

database to minimize data redundancy.

Indexing is the process of entering

information from historical records into an online, searchable database.

Referential Integrity and Data Redundancy

Referential Integrity is the process of stopping the loss of data from the users actions.

Data redundancy is a condition created within a database in which the same piece of data is held in two separate places.

Network Protocols

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol; used withIP to ensure error free transmission and package switching.

IP – Internet Protocol; used to transfer
allpackets across the internet between

FTP – File Transfer Protocol; Used by
clientsand servers to upload and download files across the internet.

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol; Used by webservers and browsers to transfer web

SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol; Used bymail servers and clients to transfer email across the Internet.

Topologies and Network Types

Topologies are way of connecting devices
within a network.


- Wide Area Network

- Covers a large geographical area- might beworldwide

- Telecom companies may own the networkinfrastructure


- Virtual Private Network

- Piggybacks the internet for infrastructure

- This is therefore a need to make this highlysecure

Other Networks:

SAN – Storage Area Network, Data storage centres

MAN – Metropolitan Area Network, providesnetworks in cities

PAN – Personal Area Network, Link personal devicessuch as phones + tablets.

Packet Switching +
Circuit Switching

Circuit switching:

- Two network nodes establish a dedicated communicationschannel through the network before the nodes may communicate.

- Follows one direct route

- From node to node

Packet Switching:

- Data broken down into packets

- Packets take a different route each

- Each packet has a sequence number

- This is a more efficient way

IP and MAC Address
IP (Internet Protocol):

- A numerical label assigned to each device

- Participating in a computer network that uses the- Internet Protocol for communication

Two principal functions:

-Host or network interface identification

-Location addressing

MAC Address:

- MAC addresses are used as a network

- Assigned to network interfaces for
communications on the physical network

Client Vs. Peer to Peer

Peer to Peer:

-All the same status

-Slow data transfers due to collisions and shared process power

-Suitable for small and low air traffic

-Designed for the home.

Client Server:
- At least one computer is a designated server.
- Needs to be high spec
- Manages traffic on the network
- Records what people do
- Gives security
- Clients have to sign in
- Large networks can be used to handle increasing demands
- Client requests services from server.
- Large Networks have a specialised server.