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60 Cards in this Set

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What does exercise do to the body? Page 69
Page 69: places unique and demanding requirements on the body's ability to supply energy and remove metabolic byproducts
What does exercise do to the body? Page 69
Page 69: places unique and demanding requirements on the body's ability to supply energy and remove metabolic byproducts
What must happen to food before it can be used as energy? Page 69
Page 69: food must be converted into substrates including carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
What is ATP? Page 70
Page 70: a high-energy compound called adenosine triphosphate
What is bioenergetics? Page 70
Page 70: the study of energy in the human body
What are three things energy is required for? Page 70
Pages 70: to sustain life, support exercise, and help recovery from exercise
What is the ultimate source of energy? Page 70
Page 70: the Sun
What does metabolism refer to? Page 70
Page 70: all chemical reactions that occur in the body
What does exercise metabolism refer to? Page 70
Page 70: the examination of bioenergetics in relation to unique physiological changes and demands placed on the body during exercise
What constitutes the main substrates? Page 70
Page 70: proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids (fats)
What are carbohydrates? Page 71
Page 71: a source of fuel and energy required for all daily activities comprised of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What can a lack of carbohydrates create? Page 71
Page 71: fatigue, poor mental function, and lack of endurance and stamina
What is the primary end product after digestion of carbohydrates? Page 71
Page 71: glucose , a simple sugar manufactured by the body which serves as the body's main source of fuel
What is glycogen? Page 71
Page 71: a complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in liver and muscle cells . It is converted to glucose for use by muscle cells
What is the role of fats? Page 71
Page 71: help the body use vitamins and keep skin healthy and serve as energy stores
What are the two main types of fat in food? Page 71
Page 71: saturated and unsaturated
What are triglycerides? Page 71
Page 71: a chemical or substrate form and which fat exists in food as well as the body
What is one of the benefits of fat? Page 71
Page 71: it is a fuel source that most people have an inexhaustible supply
When is protein used as a significant energy source? Page 71
Page 71 in starvation
What is gluconeogenesis? Page 71
Page 71: the formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources such as amino acids in protein
What does ATP stand for? Page 71
Page 71: adenosine triphosphate
What happens when ATP chemical bonds are broken and energy is released? Page 71
Page 71: adenosine diphosphate or aDP is left behind
What is energy used for in regard to muscle contraction? page 72
Page 72: to form the myosin actin cross bridges that facilitate muscle contraction
What can any form of exercise be defined by? Page 72
Page 72: intensity and duration
Explain how the human body technically does not make energy. Page 72
Page 72: the human body transfers energy from the Sun through food to cells to perform specific cellular and mechanical functions
What percent of energy released from ATP is actually used for cellular work? Page 72
Page 72: approximately 40%
What happened to the energy that is not used for cellular work? Page 72
Page 72: it is released as heat
What are the three system for energy release? Page 73
Page 73: the ATP - PC system, the glycolytic system, the oxidative system
ATP - PC system is predominantly used when? Page 73
Page 73: during high intensity, short duration bouts of exercise
What is anaerobic exercise? Page 73
Page 73: when oxygen is not used to produce energy
Approximately how many seconds is available when ATP - PC system is used to create energy? Page 73
Page 73: only 10 to 15 seconds before exhaustion is reached
When is glycolysis used? Page 74
Page 74: as another means of anaerobic energy production for the chemical breakdown of glucose
What is the end result of glycolysis? Page 74
Page 74: the breakdown of glucose or glycogen to either pyruvic acid with anaerobic glycolysis or lactic acid with anaerobic glycolysis to create 2 ATP for each mole or unit of glucose and 3 ATP from each unit of glycogen
What is the approximate time available when glycolysis is used to create energy? Page 74
Page 74: approx 30 to 50 seconds of duration
Why is glycolysis the most common way to create energy used by exercisers? Page 74
Page 74: because most fitness workouts place greater stress on this system because the typical repetition ranges of 8 to 12 repetitions and therefore falls within the appropriate time frame
Why is the oxidative system unique for energy creation? Page 74
Page 74: because it utilizes oxygen to generate ATP
What are the three oxidative or aerobic system? Page 74
Page 74: aerobic glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain or ETC
What is different when oxygen is used during the process of glycolysis? Page 75
Page 75: the end product is changed, specifically pyruvic acid is created
What is beta oxidation? Page 75
Page 75: the breakdown of triglycerides into small subunits called free fatty acids which are converted into acyl-CoA molecules and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP
Oh so fat oxidation produces more ATP per molecule of fat, what is required for proper use? Page 76
Page 76: more action is required to produce ATP
What is the benefit of aerobic metabolism? Page 76
Page 76: the capacity to produce energy , at least for exercise, for an indefinite period of time
How is energy used for muscles? Page 76
Page 76: to form the myosin actin cross bridges that facilitate muscle contraction
How much ATP is required for one cycle of a cross bridge? Page 76
Page 76: 2 ATPs
What is the most important factor when regulating energy utilization during exercise? Page 76
Page 76: the intensity and duration of exercise
How is it possible to store higher quantities of glycogen? Page 77
Page 77: through a combination of training and high carbohydrate intake to allow athletes to exercise for longer periods before fatiguing or reaching exhaustion
How does extra glycogen assist the athlete? Page 77
Page 77: by allowing the athlete to maintain his or her pace for longer periods of time
How can the bioenergetics of exercise the indirectly measured in laboratories? Page 77
Page 77: by measuring the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide and volume of expired air, in addition to heart rate, blood pressure, and exercise load or work output
What is steady-state exercise? Page 77
Page 77: exercise performed at a constant pace or intensity
What is the second win in regard to exercise? Page 78
Page 78: most physiologists think that when the exercise settles into a more comfortable feeling the body has reached a plateau causing people to feel more comfortable in early or discomfort fades
What occurs to oxygen consumption as a person goes from supine or lying down to seed addressed to standing at rest? Page 78
Page 78 Poland oxygen consumption increases
Why does the body prefer aerobic or oxidative metabolism? Page 78
Page 78 because carbon dioxide and water are more easily eliminated
Why does the body rely on the ATP- PC cycle when starting exercise? Page 79
Page 79: because aerobic metabolic pathways are too slow to meet initial demands
What is excess post-exercise oxygen consumption? Page 79
Page 79: the state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise
Why is excess post-exercise oxygen consumption necessary for the body? Page 79
Page 79: for recovery in to help reestablish baseline levels of ATP as well as assisting with the clearing of metabolic end products
What occurs when an athlete has increased intensity? Page 79
Page 79: most of the energy needs come from anaerobic metabolism
What is the respiratory quotient? Page 79
Page 79: the amount of carbon dioxide expired / the amount of oxygen consumed measured during breast are at a steady state of exercise using a metabolic analyzer
What supplies energy when the respiratory quotient is 1.0? Page 79
Page 79: carbohydrate supply 100% of the fuel
What predominately supplies energy when the respiratory quotient of 0.7 ? Page 79
Page 79: fat supplies 100% of the fuel for metabolism
What occurs when the respiratory quotient is between 0.7 and 1.0? Page 79
Page 79: a mixture of carbohydrates and fats are fueling metabolism
Why is the fat burning zone a myth? Page 80
Page 80: because higher intensity will ultimately produce higher calorie burn therefore increasing the amount of both fat and carbohydrates burned