Exercise Affects The Human Body

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Exercise effects the human body in many fascinating ways; as it causes the body to adapt and alter to aid the body’s stimulation. Take when carrying out the Harvard step test practical. This test is where a person carries out a period of exercise for a certain length of time and then records their heart rate before and for so long after the period. This shows how fit and healthy the heart is by showing how long it takes for the heart to go back to a regular resting pulse rate.
“The cardiovascular response to acute exercise is centred on the principle that the cardiovascular system fulfils three primary functions: to deliver nutrients and oxygen to cells of the body’s tissues, to remove metabolites from the same sites and to regulate heat exchange
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Take the arteries, as they carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body, they have walls which are thick, muscular with plenty elastic tissue and have an inner folded lining. This allows them to cope with the high pressure when exercise is being performed. These arteries then divide into smaller vessels called arterioles. Arterioles form a “network throughout the body so they can supply blood to areas of demand as they contain muscles themselves which contract to restrict the blood flow or relax to allow full blood flow.” (Parsons, 2009, p72) Capillaries allow the exchange of substances like glucose and oxygen to the muscles throughout aerobic exercise. This is important as during the exercise period ATP is needed by the muscle cells to carry out the contractions. This occurs through respiration. Respiration is crucial as the cells cannot get energy directly from glucose, hence the ATP production. “ATP is synthesised from ADP and an inorganic phosphate using energy from the breakdown of glucose. The energy is stored in this phosphate bond.” (Parsons, 2009, p104) ATP then can diffuse into the muscle cells where the bond is broken allowing the energy to be released and used. This results in glucose levels increasing due to the liver allowing the process glycogenesis to occur. This process is where glucose is stored as glycogen, a more stable compound and when exercise starts this procedure is ‘undone’. When …show more content…
Skeletal muscle allows the body to carry out exercise through movement of the body parts. “Skeletal muscle is defined as voluntary striated muscle that is attached to one or more bones.” (Saladin, 2008, p 266) Without this type of muscle the body would not be able to perform exercise of any type. “Nutritional blood flow through the active skeletal muscles rises by 10-20-fold from its resting value of 2-5ml/min/100g.” (Clifford and Hellsten 2004, p 72) The skin in conjunction to this has a vital role. One of the skins many functions is thermoregulation. Thermoregulation allows the body to maintain a stable body temperature. “The dermis has nerve endings called thermoreceptors that transmit signals to the brain and then the brain sends signals back to the dermal blood vessels.” (Saladin, 2008, p 129) So in terms of exercise, the body heats up. This means the receptors will identify this change and the brain will send a message back ordering vasodilation, therefore allowing heat to escape. If this isn’t enough the brain triggers sweating, increased breathing rate, “for erector muscles to lie flat, no shivering and for less adrenaline/thyroxine to be released.” (Parsons, 2009,

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