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15 Cards in this Set

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Motor Learning

The process that brings about a permanent change in motor performance as a result of practice or experience

Phases of Motor Learning

Cognitive -- "Thinking phase"

Associative -- "Trial & Error"

Autonomous -- "Mastery"

Cognitive Phase (of Motor Learning)

Thinking about the task. A high amount of attention is required, and verbal/visual cues are encouraged. The goal of this phase is to obtain an overall idea of what the task is all about.

Is open loop feedback (?)

Associative Phase (of motor learning)

Learning takes place with each new trial, and errors are detected and corrected with the next attempt.

Requires a medium level of attention and proprioceptive feedback.

Feedback is open loop

Autonomous Phase (of motor learning)

The task has been mastered and is stored in memory. Requires little attention to the task.

Feedback is closed loop

Open Skills

Skills done in environments that change over time. Open skills require the mover to update constantly and to pay attention to incoming information.

Example: playing baseball, walking on uneven surfaces, driving a car

Closed Skills

Skills that have set parameters and stay the same.

People have fewer motor issues with closed skill tasks

Examples: walking on carpet, holding an object, reaching for a target

Adams' Closed-Loop Theory (of Motor Learning)

Sensory feedback helps us learn the "feel" of movements. Both intrinsic and extrinsic feedback are needed for motor control & motor learning.

This theory provides a good explanation for how slow movements are learned, but does not explain how fast movements are controlled or learned

Intrinsic feedback

Intrinsic feedback comes from the learner

A good shot in tennis "feels right"

Extrinsic feedback

Extrinsic feedback comes from the environment. Extrinsic feedback is also called the knowledge of results

The sound of the ball hitting the "sweet spot" of a racquet

Knowledge of results

Extrinsic feedback

Schmidt's Schema Theory

Developed to address the limitations of Adams' theory.

The body stores learned tasks/movements as "motor programs".

There are 3 types of feedback:

Muscle contraction



When a person moves these 3 feedbacks and knowledge of results are briefly stored as "schema" which are used to adjust and evaluate the performance of a motor program

Effects of practice

The more closely the practice environment resembles the actual environment where the task will take place, the better the transfer of learning

"Perfect practice makes perfect"

Part-whole training

Working in tasks as a whole or broken down into parts. Breaking it down into parts can enhance task performance or task quality, but it depends on the cognitive function of the patient

Constraints of motor development

Young: there are limitations of available task because the body is not fully developed

Old: there are limitations of available tasks because the body is degenerating