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41 Cards in this Set

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Motor Control

Ability to regulate/direct mechanisms essential to movement

Motor Learning

Set of processes associated with practice/experience that lead to relatively permanent changes in capability for skilled movement

What components make up the continuum of movement?

Learned "skills, genetics, injury/disease (adaptation/modification)

Motor Skill

Mutual interaction between our motor system and the environment

Discrete task

Recognizable beginning and end. Ex. throwing, striking a match, shifting gears

Serial Task

Discrete actions strung together, order and timing important. ex. playing the piano, assembly-line, gymnastics routine

Continuous task

No recognizable begging or end, could stop/start at any point, continues until arbitrarily stopped. ex. swimming, steering car, tracking

Open environment

Changing environment, unpredictable, cannot plan movement in advance, requires flexibility in planning/responding

Close environment

Predictable, can plan several seconds ahead, more experienced learner

Motor Program

an abstract representation that when initiated results in the production of a coordinated movement sequence, with fundamental spatial and temporal features to determine the relative timing of each component of a movement. (contains fixed and flexible features)

Central pattern generator

"pre-wired" patterns that allow muscles to act without input from higher centers or feedback from limbs.


-occurs with stereotyped "automatic" activity such as walking

Neuro-regulation

control of muscle activation patterns to generate forces that stabilize joints and move segments


Use of sequence, magnitude, timing, coordination

A single neuron fires how many times/second?


Conscious processing requires how many milliseconds?


We are capable of how many conscious calculations per second?


Conscious mind processes how many bits/second? Subconscious processes?

-200 times/second


-300-700 milliseconds


-2 conscious calculations per second


-7 bits/second, subconscious 140 bits/second

What is the correct sequence of events for Reaction time?

Stimulus identification --> response selection --> response programming

What is the process of processing?

Input-->processing-->output, can occur in parallel or series

What contributes to a shorter reaction time?

Simple choice, clarity, intensity, combined stimuli (auditory+tacticle+visual), dominant hand, more practice ,fewer errors, no fatigue, concussion without headaches, from infancy through 20's

What contributes to a longer reaction time?

several choices, visual cues (not auditory or tactile), non-dominant hand, less practice, more errors, fatigue, concussion with headache, from 20s and beyond

What are some things that change with aging?

Reaction time increases, slowed choice reaction time, slowed retrieval, greater decrements in explicit (declarative memory), deficits in holding info and performing cognitive function simultaneously (complex directions)

What are direct and indirect influences of consequences of information processing?

direct: retrieval of prior experience


indirect: natural and instinctive (ex. walking)

ST sensory store

stores for less than 1 second, literal coding, limitless coding

STM (working memory)

stores for 1-60 seconds, abstract coding, stores 7 +/-2 items, allows for rapid access but quick loss without attention

Long term memory

stores for limitless duration, abstract coding, limitless capacity

Internal Focus of attention

intrinsic feedback, sensory consequence, benefits novice performer

External focus of attention

extrinsic feedback, environmental cues, expected outcome, benefits skilled performer

Motor Performance

short term, acquisition (teaching of skill) of motor behavior, observed during practice session

Motor learning

long-term, permanent change, measured/observed with retention and transfer (occur after acquisition)

What are the 3 stages of learning?

1.) cognitive (closed loop control)


2.) associative (open/closed loop)


3.) autonomous (open loop control)

What are some constraints on performance/learning?

Individual (age, disease, goals), task (simple, complex, discrete, ect) environment (open/closed, predictability, noise)

What are some types of practice?

active, deliberate, massed, distributed, part, whole, random, blocked, varied, constant

Contextual Interference

delayed performance benefits due to high cognitive difficulty. The more cognitive effort to learn a task, the higher the CI. (increasing difficulty during acquisition decreased performance but increases learning)

Elaborative Processing Hypothesis

promotes comparative analyses. When a learner shifts from one task to another, they become more aware of the distinctiveness between tasks making more meaningful in LT memory

Reconstruction Hypothesis

Reconstructing what was forgotten back into working memory promotes LT learning (ex. task A requires action plan A (repeat for task B), when switching from A to B you forget aspects of A in order to perform B.

Challenge Point Hypothesis

Recognizes benefits of CI and individuality of learner. There is a point of optimal challenge that yields maximum practice benefits.


-Scale challenge appropriately

What are the benefits of concurrent vs. terminal feedback?

concurrent improves performance, while terminal improves retention

What are benefits of immediate vs. delayed feedback?

delayed supports retention and encourages active practice, too much=forget task, immediate FB may limit processing of movement

Knowledge of Results

Quantitative or qaulitative, movement outcome relative to environment


ex. short by 2 inches, a little high


*Use for more experienced learner, deliberate practice, associative/autonomous stage of learning

Knowledge of Performance

qualitative, kinematics of movement patterns, biofeedback, commonly used in clinic


ex. bend a little less here, short your weight in this direction, hold that position in the mirror


*use in novice learner, need to focus attention, cognitive stage of learning

Closed Loop control

experienced movements, slow movements, feedback, ongoing corrections during movement

Open Loop Control

when intrinsic sources of FB are unavailable during movement


-novel movements, quick (mostly) and slow movements, discrete and automated movements, anticipation of environment/task, feedforward, guidance dominates

Feedforward

expected sensory qualitites of a movement/task goal and/or planned/intentional movement, unconsious movement corrections occur before conscious processing to prepare for upcoming movement and/or feedback

Feedback

used to motivate performance and improve learning by providing information about error detections and error correction, should be perscriptive!