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27 Cards in this Set

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Motor Learning encompasses
Motor Control
in most cases, behavioral/psychological approaches to examining motor skill learning as reflected by the pattern of change in performance over trials and the relative persistence of that change during a retention or transfer test, i.e. how do you set up the learning environment to optimize learning

Motor control - physiological approaches to understand how motor skills are controlled by the neuromuscular system
Unit 1: skill classification
1: precision of movement
Gross (large muscle groups)
Fine (control of small muscles, small forces
all skills exist in continuum between two extremes
Unit 1: skill classification
1: Predictability of Environment
Closed skill = fixed, unchanging environment or completely predictable patter. Person decides when and where to do skill, can ignore or predict environment

Open skill - temporal and/or spatial change in environment. Parts move at unpredictable times and/or in unpredictable directions. Must respond to changes and do skill when/where it's needed.
Motor Learning - aspects that feed into learning principles that allow us to optimize motor skill instruction
Skill Classification
Stages of learning
Attention and Learning
Whole vs. Part instruction
Augmented feedback
4 Categories of motor skills
Either closed or open and only one outcome (or outcome not important) vs multiple movement outcomes required and outcome quality important
1 - "hit ball from T"
2 - Hit ball from pitcher (open)
3 - "hit ball on T to different heights" multiple outcomes
4 - "hit ball from pitcher to different heights" most skills here
Whole and Part learning: Part practice techniques
1, 2, 3
Practice Grouped Parts
Progressive Part
Whole and Part learning: Part practice techniques
Practice Grouped Parts
can practice parts independently if they don't depend on other parts. Tennis - grip, stance, back swing & toss can be separate, but forward swing, ball contact, follow through are dependent and should be practiced together.
Then put groups together for whole skill
Whole and Part learning: Part practice techniques
Progressive Part
1 at a time, learn first then add next, useful for complex memory routines
Whole and Part learning: Part practice techniques
e.g. juggle scarves instead of balls to slow speed, whole skill but simplified. Sometimes need special equipment, sometimes just adjust methods
Stages of Motor Skill Learning: Fitts & Posner 3 stage model
1. Cognitive
2. Associative
3. Autonomous
Cognitive Stage of learning
Thinking while practicing
many gross errors (though may not realize)
inconsistent performance
poor coordination
Instructor must give very specific information on what to do = identify errors and give correction tips
Associative Stage of learning
Basic mechanics mastered
fewer, less gross errors
improved coordination, better timing
refining and basic error detection can be done by the learner, coach doesn't need to point out everything
Autonomous Stage of learning
Skill is almost automatic
Own error detection and correction (quickly)
Need less time from the instructor
not everyone reaches this stage for all activities
Why is it important to understand the stages of motor learning
how to use stages
Important for initial learning and rehab. People at different stages need different things.
May progress through them as you move through categories of skills (1-4).
But, can't break it down too much/slowly or it'll be frustrating and boring. Sometimes helps learner to try the whole activity and realize you're not good to get motivation to do drills
Highly dangerous things and rehabilitation require building up through steps
Unit 4: Attention and Learning
Can you do 2 things well at the same time?
We have limited capacity to attend to feedback information. Cognitive task can interfere with motor or motor with motor (studies)
Kahneman's model of selective attention
Rules of involuntary attention
Total capacity is divided up into enduring dispositions (involuntary attention) and Momentary intentions (what you decide to attend to for that situation
Enduring disposition rules
Rules of involuntary attention (Enduring disposition rules)
Rule 1: unexpected stimuli attract or attention
Rule 2: We tend to pay attention to visual information
Rule 3: We attend to things which are Meaningful (understood)
Rules of involuntary attention (Enduring disposition rules)
Rule 2: We tend to pay attention to visual information
Transfer test - blindfolded person learns how to touch target. Less accurate afterward without the blindfold.
People first and foremost try to get feedback from their eyes, even though they may not be the best sources of information (fun house).
Rules of involuntary attention (Enduring disposition rules)
Rule 3: We attend to things which are Meaningful (understood)
"cocktail party phenomena"
so, make the most important feedback meaningful to learner.
Spend more time learning the "feel" so it's ingrained when you do it with eyes open
Tricks that make use of the rules of involuntary attention
isolate the learner
use their name often (meaningful)
clap sing, funny sound (unexpected)
Remove hint of real or perceived danger
Don't allow parents to watch class
Remove ability to focus on result (performance characteristics become most meaningful)
"Trick" student into doing skill by focusing attention on meaningful task with similar movement pattern ("chicken, airplane, soldier")
Attention demands and practice through stages of learning
In autonomous stage...
Let cognitive learners focus, no distraction with questions. Let them use vision.

Less attention to skill needed
more attention to environment possible
Distract with conversation to see if movement is automated

As skill level and automation increases, may need to tell the learner to focus on something new
What is augmented feedback?
Three types?
Feedback from an external source (not the body - sensory)
Knowledge of results (KR)
Knowledge of Performance (KP)
Augmented sensory feedback
Augmented feedback - KR
information provided to the learner related to their outcome. sometimes say obvious things for reinforcement. May be something subject couldn't know... time in race or qualitative - opinion of judge
Augmented feedback - KP
information provided to the learner related to the performance characteristics that produced the outcome. Tell them what they did right or wrong.
Augmented sensory feedback
Help learner detect and utilize what their sensory system is unable to detect. Usually given during performance.

Enhance - hearing aid
Make difference more noticeable. Use EMG to measure muscle contraction - show tension or relaxation. Use touch to feel contraction (own hand).
What information should be given when providing augmented feedback?
Just ONE aspect of performance for learner to focus on

Beginning learners should have low detail feedback, extra details of more precise feedback can't be used early in the learning process
Intermediate learners need high detail feedback to improve
How often should you provide augmented feedback?
Don't give FB after every trial. A person does no better, sometimes worse than if he gets feedback after several trials. He should learn to detect and correct his own errors instead of depending on you for all feedback.