• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Stratum corneum

- Outermost layer of the epidermis - thin outer portion of the skin - consists of many rows of dead cells


- Inner, relatively thick portion of skin composed mainly of connective tissue

- Hair follicles, sweat gland ducts, and oil gland ducts provide passageways through which microbes can enter and penetrate deeper tissues


- Provides moisture and some nutrients for microbial growth

- Contains salt, lysozyme and antimicrobial peptides also


- Secreted by oil glands, is a mixture of lipids (unsaturated fatty acids), proteins, and salts that prevents skin and hair from drying out

- Can also be nutritive and inhibitive to pathogens


- Gram positive pleomorphic rods of normal flora

- Typically anaerobic and inhabit hair follicles

- Growth by sebum, produce propionic acid which helps maintain low pH of skin (3-5)

Ex: Propionibacterium acnes






- Small, fluid-filled lesions

- When they are larger than about 1 cm in diameter

- Flat, reddened lesions

- Raised lesions

- Lesions that contain pus



- A skin rash that arises from disease conditions

- A mucous membrane rash that arises from disease conditions



- Two genera of bacteria that are frequent causes of skin-related diseases

- May produce invasive enzymes and damaging toxins


- Spherical gram positive genus of bacteria

- Form irregular clusters

- Many produce coagulase (enzyme that clots fibrin in the blood)

1. Nasal
2. 20
3. Golden-yellow
4. positive
5. toxins
6. sepsis
7. opsonization
8. chemotaxis
9. phagosomes
10. MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus)
Staphylococcus aureus is carried in the __1__ passages of __2__% of the population. They form __3__ colonies and are coagulase __4__. May produce damaging __5__ and proteins that kill phagocytic cells and cause __6__. Avoids host defenses in the skin. Depending on the strain, can resist __7__, block __8__ of neutrophils, and survive within __9__. __10__ strains are antibiotic resistant.


- Infections that enter the body through the hair follicle

Ex: Pimples, sty, furuncles (boil)


- Localized region of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

Ex: Furuncle (boil)


- Extensive damage from when neighboring tissue of the furuncle is progressively invaded

- At this stage, patient has symptoms of generalized illness with fever


- Highly contagious skin infection (Age 2-5 Susceptible) spread by direct contact

- Mainly caused by staphylococcus aureus but also Streptococcus pyogenes

- Main form is nonbullous sore

- Crusting sores


- Process where pathogen can spread to surrounding areas after penetrating some minor break in the skin

Bullous impetigo

Scalded skin syndrome

Two serotypes of a staphylococcal toxin in which toxin A remains localized and causes __________ and toxin B which circulates to distant sites and causes ____________.

Toxin B causes exfoliation.

Pemphigus neonatorum

- Impetigo of the newborn, in which its outbreaks of bullous impetigo are frequent problems at hospital nurseries

Toxic Shock Syndrome

- Fever, vomiting, and a sunburnlike rash are followed by shock and sometimes organ failure, esp. kidneys

- Result of staphylococcal growth

- Caused by toxic shock syndrome 1 in the bloodstream (TSST-1)


- Characteristic of and classifications of streptococci that describe lysing of blood cells

Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci

- Often associated with human disease, further differentiated into serological groups according to antigenic carbohydrates in their cell walls

Ex: group A streptococci (GAS) = Streptococcus pyogenes that release streptolysins


- Enzymes produced by streptococci that lyse red blood cells and toxic to neutrophils

M Protein

- Antigenic property that subdivide group A streptococci

- Prevents activation of complement and allows microbe to evade phagocytosis and killing by neutrophils, immune system avoidance

- Helps adherence and mucous membrane colonization

- Hyaluronic acid capsule that is poorly immunogenic

Group A Strep (GAS)

- Produces substances that promote the rapid spread of infection through tissue and by liquefying pus

- Produces virulence factor, 80 immunological types

Ex: streptokinases, hyaluronidase, deoxyribonucleases, streptolysins, M proteins

Necrotizing fasciitis

- Exotoxin A acts as superantigen

- Group A streptococcal infection precipitated by minor breaks in the skin, destroys tissue as rapidly as surgeons can remove it

- Systemic toxicity

- Often associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome which resembles staphylococcal TSS

- Bacteremia more likely

- Rash is less likely

- M protein - fibrinogen complex binds to neutrophils

- Higher mortality rate

4 Differences between Streptococcal TSS and Staphylococcal TSS


- Thin outer portion of skin; composed of layers of epithelial cells


Waterproofing protein coating outer layer of epidermis


Enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls

Mucous Membranes

- Line the body cavities open to the exterior

- Tightly packed epithelial cells attached to an extracellular matrix

- Secretes _____; some cells have cilia

- Often acidic

- Often folded to maximize surface area


- Contains lysozyme

- Washes the membrane of the eyes

1. drying

2. high salt

3. positive

4. cocci

5. staphylococci

6. micrococci

7. sweat

The normal microbiota of the skin is resistant to ___1___ and ___2___ concentration. There are large numbers of gram __3__ __4__, such as ___5___ and ___6___. Areas with moisture have higher populations which metabolize ___7___ and contribute to body odor.

Postherpetic neuralgia

affects nerve fibers and skin, causing burning pain that lasts long after the rash and blisters of shingles disappear.

1. Rubeola

2. Measles Virus

3. Ribonucleic acid

4. Morbillivirus

Measles, AKA ____1____ is caused by the ___2___ which is an enveloped ___3___ acid of the genus ___4___.


- Coldlike symptoms; macular rash; Koplik's spots: Red spots on oral mucosa opposite molars; Encephalitis in 1/1000 cases

- Respiratory

- Prevention: MMR vaccine; <1 year old cannot receive; 95% effective but cases occur where people do not develop or retain good immunity

virus replicates in nose and throat cells; 5-7 days after exposure, infection spread through blood to skin, eyes and respiratory tract; rash appears after 3-4 days spreading from face and neck to trunk and extremities; most persons recover but severe forms involve bleeding from skin and mucosa; <5 years develop otitis media and pneumonia; Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

- mild mental deterioration (memory loss), changes in behavior (irritability) followed by disturbances in motor functions

- Seizures and blindness may occur. May lose the ability to walk as muscles stiffen or spasm; progressive deterioration to comatose state, then to persistent vegetative state. Death is usually result of fever, heart failure, or brain's inability to continue controlling autonomic nervous system

- Rare, occurs 1-10 years after recovery of measles


M Proteins



4 substances secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS)
- Enzymes that lyse red blood cells
- Enzyme that dissolves connective tissue

- Enzyme that dissolves blood clots

1. Variola

2. Orthropoxvirus

3. Respiratory Routes

4. Systemic

5. Major

Smallpox AKA ___1___ is caused by the ___2___, which are typically transmitted via ___3___ and become ___4___. Many cause problems in children and developing fetuses. ___5___ type has 20% mortality and __6__ type has less than 1%.


- Considered potential bioterrorism agent

- Vaccination can completely eradicate from human population

1. Varicella

2. Varicella-Zoster

3. Herpes-Zoster

4. Reye's

5. Aspirin

6. Ganglia

7. Attenuated

Chickenpox AKA ___1___ is caused by the ___2___ virus whereas Shingles is caused by the ___3___ virus. ___4___ Syndrome is from a severe complication of chickenpox, leading to vomiting and brain dysfunction. __5__ can increase risk. Virus becomes latent in the central nerve __6__, prevention can come from live __7__ vaccine.
Chicken Pox

- Breakthrough can occur if previously vaccinated

- Symptoms include pus-filled vesicles

- Respiratory mode of transmission


- Reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus that moves along peripheral nerves to the skin; due to stress or lowered immunity; follows distribution of affected cutaneous sensory nerves along one side of body

- Can lead to postherpetic neuralgia

Prevention: Zoster vaccine; Treatment: antiviral drugs may lessen symptoms

1. cold sores

2. genital warts

Herpes Simplex has subtypes HSV-1 that causes __1__ and HSV-2 that causes ___2___. 90% of the population is infected, are not the cause of canker sores.

1. Rubella

2. MMR

3. Congenital rubella

4. 15%

German Measles caused by __1__ can be prevented with the __2__ vaccine but is not recommended for pregnant women. ___3___ syndrome can cause fetal damage, deafness, heart defects, mental retardation and has a __4__ mortality rate.

German Measles

- 2 to 3 week incubation period

- Macular rash and light fever

Fifth disease

- AKA erythema infectiosum

- Caused by human parvovirus B19

- Mild flu-like, "slapped-cheek" facial rash


- Caused by Human herpesvirus 6 and 7

- High fever and body rash

- Recovery within 1-2 days, leads to immunity

Hand-foot-mouth disease

- Caused by the enterovirus

- Fever and sore throat, rash on specific areas

- Usually in children, spread by mucous or saliva


- Cutaneous infection caused by ringworm AKA tinease (fungal)

- Metabolizes keratin

Tinea capitis: Scalp

Tinea cruris: Jock itch

Tinea pedia: Athlete's foot

Tinea unguium: Nails

4 Types of Ringworm and where it infects


Candida albicans

- Caused by yeast (fungal) that forms pseudohyphae, making it resistant to phagocytosis, results when antibiotics suppress competing bacteria or a change occurs in the mucosal pH

- Fulminating disease in the immunosuppressed


- Sarcoptes scabiei mites lays eggs after burrowing in skin

- Causes inflammatory skin lesions

- Treatment: permethrin


- AKA pink eye

- Eye membrane inflammation associated with unsanitary contact lenses

- Can be caused by Haemophilus influenza, pseudomonads (Gram negative aerobic) or adenoviruses

- Leading cause of blindness worldwide; secondary infection can also be factor

- Caused by chlamydia trachomatis, through hand contact or flies

- Permanent scarring abrading cornea

- Treatment: Oral azithromyocine