Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are processes?

The actions that transform inputs into outputs

What are process strategies?

differing approaches toward the transformation of inputs into outputs

What are three basic strategies for processing inputs into finished products?

(1) make to stock

(2) make to order

(3) assemble to order

A _______ ___ __________ operation transforms inputs into highly standardized products.

make to stock

Make-to- stock consumers _______ ____ and works uninterrupted to create a stock of _____ _______

raw materials

finished goods

What are raw materials?

inventory brought in from outside the system

What are finished goods?

inventory awaiting sale to customers.

Make to stock systems emphasize the ___ and _____-_________ _____ associated with mass manufacturing


high-volume production

a high degree of standardization of the product in make-to-stock systems also implies...

a high degree of standardization of the processes, providing opportunities for specialized equipment and automation

Although make to stock does not produce instantaneously, _____ ___ as perceived by the customer is generally instantaneous because...

lead time

because the finished good is available off the shelf at some retail location

Define lead time.

Delay between requesting a product and receiving it.

What is continuous processing?

where a single product is produced in great quantities by uninterrupted flow of inputs through an operation

Can services perform in a similar fashion as make-to-stock?

yes, a service organization standardizes its value to the customer, removing variation to enable high-volume, inexpensive provision of the service

What is make-to-order processing?

a system that produces low volumes of customized product.

With a make to order processing strategy, when does transformation begin?

does not begin until specific customer demand is known

What has a longer lead time, make-to-stock or make-to-order?

make-to-order because customers must wait while the product is created according to their specifications

What is the cycle for make to order?

stock --> processing --> finished goods

With make to order processing, each unit of finished product is assumed...

sold to and removed by the customer who triggered its production

What is the purpose of make to order?

the purpose of make to order system is to provide a customizable product.

Because make to order systems have a lower volume of production, they typically have a...

higher unit costs.

Define assemble-to-order.

a system that produces standard modules to be modified and/or combined into a customized product.

How does assemble to order use a make to stock approach?

to generate standard subassemblies, which it then uses to meet specific customers requirements in a make-to-order fashion

What is work-in-process?

inventory resulting from transformation of raw materials, but not yet ready for sale to consumers.

What is the purpose of assemble to order?

reducing customer lead time and gaining some of the efficiencies of make-to-stock production

What is the order of an assemble-to-order operation?

(1) stock

(2) processing

(3) stock (work in process subassemblies)

(4) processing

(5) finished good

Many successful examples of assemble to order result from organizations...

rethinking older make-to-order or make to stock strategies

What is business process reengineering?

evaluation and improvement of an existing process design

_________ ___________ is an assemble to order strategy for stocking highly standardized components for later customization into finished goods.

delayed differentiation

What is remanufacturing?

production of finished goods from the recycled components of returned goods.

While business process reengineering often focuses on improving the ________ of an operation, remanufacturing represents improvements that support both ________________ and __________


productivity and sustainability

What are the four major types of facilities?

(1) product

(2) process

(3) hybrid

(4) fixed position layouts

A ______ ____ is defined by a single unchanging traffic pattern through the facility.

Product layout

The unchanging pattern in a product layout marks the flow of transformation creating a highly ____________ product.


Product layout is the logical choice of layout for...

make to stock production

What is one familiar example of product layout?

assembly line

What do all product layouts have in common?

all product layouts do share a devotion to the efficient production of a single standardized product.

What is the fundamental advantage of a product layout?

high efficiency

What is efficiency?

the percent of a resource in productive use

The efficiency of product layout results from...

an unchanging pattern of processing, designed to transform high volumes of standardized inputs into high volumes of standardized output.

List four advantages to product layout?

(1) high utilization of resources

(2) low reliance of skilled workers

(3) low per-unit cost of production

(4) less complex managerial planning and control required

What are four disadvantages for product layout?

(1) little flexibility for the customer

(2) relatively prone to disruption. A loss of any one workstation stops flow through the system

(3) relatively higher level of capital investment

(4) relatively lower levels of job satisfaction

What is a solution to poor job satisfaction and disruption?

cross training workers in a variety of tasks

What is a mixed model assembly?

production of a range of products with a single assembly line, primarily by varying features on an otherwise standardized product

When designing a product layout, the designer must assign...

all transformation processes to distinct locations along that path

____ ___ is a product layout design technique which assigns the tasks to be performed at consecutive workstations, seeking to balance the workload among them

line balancing

What is an algorithm?

producing a design through a series of steps, and the first of these steps concerns the cycle time of the line

What is cycle time?

the pace of a product layout, being the total amount of time each workstation has to complete its assigned tasks once during ongoing operation of the system

Why is cycle time important for product layout?

It determines:

(1) the amount of time a single workstation is given to complete its work on a single unit of product

(2) the total number of workstations required in the layout.

(3) the speed at which the layout produces finished product.

The shorter the cycle time...

the less work can be accomplished at each workstation on each unit of product, and thus the more workstations needed to complete all the work required.

A shorter cycle time means faster _____


Explain the theoretical shortest possible time theory.

a product layout cannot operate with a cycle time any shorter than the length of the longest task to be performed, or that task would never be performed successfully

Explain the theoretical longest rational cycle time theory.

the longest cycle time that makes any sense equals the sum of all the tasks to be performed, although this implies an assembly line with only one station completing all of the tasks.

Line balancing distributes work __________ along the path of a product layout, enabling...


smooth, rapid flow of production

Line balancing is also a _____ technique that can produce multiple solutions but cannot guarantee that any solution is necessarily the best answer to the scenario


What are the steps of line balancing?

(1) determine the cycle time for the layout

(2) draw a precedence diagram, illustrating the tasks requiring assignment along the path of the layout

(3) assign those tasks to workstations according to the predetermined decision rule

(4) evaluate the efficiency if the resulting layout

To determine cycle time for line balancing, we must first know two pieces of information. What are the two pieces of information?

Operating time and demand on the line

What is operating time?

how long to line will operate

What is demand on the line?

how many finished products the line must complete within its stated operating time

What is the formula of cycle time?

Operating time/ Demand on the line

What do we do after we determine the cycle time?

we start the design process.

What must be done during the design process?

data must be collected on each of the tasks required to successfully create one unit of finished good

The data gathered during the design process should specify...

both how much time is required to complete finish each task and whether any tasks must be performed in any certain order

________ _____ is a dependency between two tasks, usually requiring that one task be complete before the other task is started

precedence relationship

One common method for communicating dependency between tasks is by specifying ________ _____

immediate predecessors

What are immediate predecessors?

tasks that must be finished directly before another task is started

After data is collected one should illustrate the information as a ______ ______

precedence diagram

What are the three common decision rules used for line balancing?

(1) longest processing time- select the longer of the two tasks

(2) shortest processing time- select the shorter of the two tasks

(3) greatest number of following tasks- select the option with the greater number of tasks following it.

In a precedence diagram, what are the five columns?

(1) station

(2) time remaining

(3) eligible tasks

(4) eligible tasks that will fit

(5) assigned

The primary goal of any product layout is highly ______ use of its _______________, and thus any layout produced by line balancing should be evaluated for its __________




When evaluating a product layout for efficiency you should begin by...

reviewing the individual workstations in the design for idle time.

What three pieces of information is needed to calculate the overall percentage of workstation use?

(1) The sum of the task times

(2) cycle time

(3) the number of workstations required by the design

What is the formula used to determine efficiency?

Efficiency= (Sum of the task times)/(Cycle time*number of workstations)

What is balance delay?

percent of a workstation time not in productive use during the operation of a product layout

How can one calculate balance delay?

Balance delay= 1.0 - efficiency

What is the formula used to calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations?

Theoretical minimum number of workstations= (sum of task times/ cycle time)

The theoretical minimum number of workstations is simply the ratio of...

the sum of task times to the value of cycle time used in the design

What is the sum of task times?

the theoretical maximum cycle time

The theoretical minimum number of workstations does not guarantee... but does guarantee...

does not guarantee that the scenario can be solved with a design using as few as the min number of workshops

but does guarantee that the scenario cannot be solved with less than the minimum number of workshops

Line balancing is sometimes combined with _________ _________ to loosen some of its limitations.

creative applications

While linear assembly lines are common historically, modern assembly line designers have found more benefit in...

curving these paths, particularly into a u shaped format.

Breaking from the convention of a straight assembly line allows for the creation of a...

central workplace for line personnel, giving them better visibility of each other, enhancing their ability to assist between workstations if needed, and consolidating any supply storage into a single area.

Theoretically a production line cannot operate at a cycle time any shorter...

than the length of the longest task, the theoretical minimum cycle time. [

What ar bottlenecks?

the most heavily utilized resource within a system, which ultimately govern the maximum pace at which the entire system can produce

What are the ways to avoid the bottleneck limitation?

(1) employing double stations for each bottleneck operation

(2) organize two identical assembly lines

Even though employing double stations for each bottleneck operation, it does not cut the amount of time needed to complete the task. Instead...

it allows for each partner to supply the line every other cycle.

Organizations that wish to efficiently manufacture products at varying rates on an on-going basis can build _________ _______, and....

duplicate lines

activate or idle one or more of the lines to increase or decrease production as needed

Multiple identical lines allow the speed of production to be....

varied as demand rises and falls.

The application of line balancing, or having two identical lines, obligates the organization to...

invest in redundant equipment.

What is the definition of dynamic?

actively and continuously changing

What is the opposite of product layout?

process layout

Process layout is organized around ____________


True or false.

There is a single standard traffic pattern within a process layout.


Each unit of product moves between processes according to its _________ __________

unique requirements

Process layouts best support __________ _______ ______ strategies.

make to order

Process layouts are commonly referred to as _____ __________ when producing goods.

job shops

The major advantage of process layout is _____, enabling it to support customized production


Process layout is less prone to ________________. They can absorb _____ in demand more readily, so the loss of any one process does not necessarily _______ the system.




Process layouts require a relatively lower level of ________ _________, often relying on ______ equipment

capital investment

generic equipment

Process layouts offer relatively higher levels of _______ _________

job satisfaction

What are the four disadvantages of process layout?

(1) relatively low utilization of resources

(2) relatively high reliance on skilled labor

(3) relatively high per unit cost of production

(4) relatively more complex managerial planning and control required

How can one find how many layouts are possible for process layout?


When looking at process layout, the common objective is to...

minimize overall traffic within a facility

_________ _________ is a quantity multiplied by the distance that the quantity will travel, to create the overall expression of the work required by that action.

load distance.

Using a load distance method to develop a process layout assumes that...

traffic between processes is the most important issue.

What is more desirable, a higher or lower load-distance score?


Since a lower load-distance score is more desirable, layouts that score well will place areas that exchange...

high volumes of traffic in close provimity to one another to minimize distances traveled.

Minimizing traffic is not the only potential objective when designing a process layout. Some process layouts are designed to deliberately _______ ________

maximize traffic.

The issue of traffic between process areas can only model why two areas should... but do not...

be located near each other, but cannot model a situation in which two areas should not be neighbors.

What are closeness ratings?

a technique that incorporates both the desirability and undesirability of neighbors within a layout.

The closeness rating technique draws its name from the requirement that each potential pair of process areas be...

rated with a letter grade from a scale of importance of closeness.

What are the letter grades used in a closeness rating scale?

a: absolutely important

e: especially important

i: important

o: ordinary importance

u: unimportant

x: undesirable

Define hybrid layout.

a hybrid layout is any mix of elements from a product layout and a process layout to gain the advantages of both.

What is cellular manufacturing?

a complex production facility subdivided into smaller product layout.

Cellular manufacturing relies on the strategy of _____ _______.

group technology.

What is group technology?

the organization of diverse products into families of similar production requirements

Both product and process layouts are usually staffed with ____ _____ _______

functional organizational structures.

What is a functional organizational structure?

an organization of specialists grouped into distinct departments.

A cellular layout distributes these functions across the _________ ___________, suggesting a less traditional _____ _______ ________ featuring work groups of differing specialists for each cell.

production cells

matrix organizational structure

What is a matrix organizational structure?

an organization that groups differing functions together according to requirements of the work .

When transformation must take place at a certain location, the organization providing that transformation must implement a ______- ____ _______

fixed position layout.

What are two main examples of fixed position layout?

this type of layout is can be a tangible product which is too large to move along pathways through a facility and thus must be assembled in onle place.

any site-based service

Fixed position layouts are also closely associated with ______ management.


define project.

a unique collection of activities creating a particular outcome