Three Major Manufacturing Process: Subformive, Subditive And Subtractive Processs

Great Essays
Three main manufacturing processes exist; formative, subtractive and additive processes. These manufacturing processes can be divided by the type of action or actions required to produce the final part. Formative processes form the material into the desired shape, either by using dies or moulds. Examples of formative processes are stamping, forging, drawing, rolling or extruding. Subtractive processes on the other hand remove layers of material to form the final part. Turning, milling, grinding, electro chemical machining (ECM), electric discharge machining (EDM), etc. are all examples of subtractive processes. Additive processes, which is the most recent manufacturing process, produces parts by building the part up in a layer-by-layer manner. …show more content…
Optical fibres or mirrors are used to convey the laser beam to a lens which focuses it to an optimal spot size. Different types of lasers can be used in the LMD process such as Nd:YAG laser, CO2 laser and excimer laser. [8] However, the most commonly used laser for LMD is the Nd: YAG laser. Nd:YAG lasers are solid-state lasers. The lasing material in a Nd:YAG laser is neodymium ions doped in YAG (yttrium aluminium garnet –Y3Al5O12) rod. At 1.06μm the wavelength of Nd:YAG lasers is close to that of infrared. The lasers beam in a Nd:YAG laser can be transmitted and delivered through optical fibres which is one of its greatest advantages. This allows processing of 3D components to be carried out much easier when industrial robots is used. The shorter wavelength of Nd:YAG lasers in comparison to CO2 lasers enables better beam absorption by metallic materials. However, Nd:YAG lasers are more expensive and costs more to run compared to CO2 lasers. The lasers that are used in the LMD process either be used in continuous wave (CW) or pulsed wave (PW) …show more content…
The lower heat produced in PW lasers are also beneficial in the case where features are built on thinner metal components as it means the component is less likely to distort when the LMD process is happening. CW lasers have the advantage of being to penetrate deeper into the substrate which allows better fusion between clad and substrate.
Powder feeding system
Powder feeders in the LMD system are what feed the powder to the substrate. Powder feeders basically control the amount of powder that is being deposited which is important as the powder flow rate is a key factor in deposition rates. The powder used in the LMD processes are a collection of small solid particles which have the ability to move relative to each other quite easily. However, inter-particle friction forces do occur between these small solid particles. In order to overcome these inter-particle forces and allow powder to flow easily into the powder feeder, the hoppers have high-wall angles which produce gravitational forces that exceed inter-particle forces. Powder feeder mechanisms are the systems that deliver the powder from the hopper to the carrier gas where the powder exits a nozzle. They can be categorized

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    “3D printing is an additive (layer-by-layer) manufacturing method that creates 3- dimensional objects using a printer from a digital file.”[1] It allowed manufacturing to use less tooling; to be more cost effective due to the reduced amount of raw material needed; and also to be able to manufacture complex shaped objects that traditional molding could not achieve. [2] However, 3D printing doesn’t only rely on one single technique. There are different types of techniques that would deliver the same product. There is a recent 3D printing technology being discovered, called Continuous Liquid Interface Production (will be referred to as CLIP in the rest of the report). [3] This technology has a faster print speed, and produces products that have…

    • 853 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    It also used to eliminate the use of lead and cadmium and minimize the use of zinc and nickel. Also, it is used in immersion deposition for all surface replaceable ions to become tin. However, to attain good results, a good base metal preparation is needed. It is an environment-acceptable process and has a low cost. In electrodeposition, it is used as an alternative for tin-lead and cadmium coatings due to its good solderability and corrosion resistance.…

    • 780 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    4.0.3. Plastics - Newer plastics are strong, good impact absorber and can be easily replaced when damaged. In the manufacturer’s side, because it has a lower melting point and also great malleability in comparison with metals so it is cheaper to produce. Plastics can be easily formed into shapes as required. They can be also coloured while it is being manufactured, saving time for another process such as painting.…

    • 1064 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Rutherford performed an experiment called the Gold Foil Experiment were fired alfa particles through a small slit at a very thin sheet of gold foil. Alfa particles are relatively massive particles travelling at a high speed so Rutherford thought all of the Alfa particles would pass through the gold foil. This is assumption was based off of JJ Thompson’s Plum Pudding Model that showed that electrons were dispersed evenly inside the atom and that the remaining parts of the atom were positively charged. Because the atom was said to be mainly positively charged particles, Rutherford did not think there would be much interference. Most of the particles proved to fit this theory by passing through the gold foil, however, some were scattered and deflected backwards.…

    • 1041 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Difficult three-dimensional configurations like recesses and holes can be coated with relative ease.  The deposition rate is high and thick coatings can be readily obtained and the process is generally competitive, and it is relatively easier to cause chemical reactions on the surface of substrate than physical change.  The process is flexible for designing, and new technology can be developed on the base of existing producing unit. [6] However the CVD process is not the universal coating panacea. It also has several disadvantages [7].…

    • 1580 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Advantages Of Oxidizer

    • 797 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Boron is a high energy fuel with lighter weight than Al, but it cannot be burned very efficiently in combustion chamber. However, it can be combusted considerably efficient if it has very small particle size also the problem for boron is that it is too expensive relative to Al when compared to performance. Beryllium is another metal fuel applied in solid propellant applications. It can easily be burnt, but because of its toxicity beryllium is not…

    • 797 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Although IBAD technique provides an efficient photocatalyst under visible light, it is considered a costly technique and time consuming because it requires specific equipments, specific conditions and multiple steps of synthesis[33]. It is not surprising that more attention is given lately to the reduction of particle size by simpler processes such as so-gel methods, applicable for various sizes, shapes, and formats (e.g., fibers, films, monoliths, and nano-sized particles). Consequently, the synthesis of PdO/TiON NPs by sol-gel method using palladium acetylacetonate (Pd(acac)2) have been reported[34] which provided the crystalline…

    • 980 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Analysis Of Magnet Wire

    • 1317 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Normally polyimides are compounded with graphite or glass fiber to get reinforcements to increase the flexural strengths. Thermoset polyimides exhibit low creep and high tensile strength, meaning this material has relative high endurance against high temperature and strains. This polymer coating has very good heat resistance and flame combustion. These properties enable polyimide to carry its job under harsh operating conditions. Generally the advantages of copper and its alloy include: • Good chemical resistance • Good thermal stability • Excellent mechanical properties • Excellent heat resistance Material…

    • 1317 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    It has a great bonding capacity between fibre and matrix. From figure 1 (c), we came to a solution that increases in addition of silicon carbide to the fabricated materials lead to increase in hardness number and hardness property [3]. This may be due to improved capacity of bonding between the fibre and reinforcement. When increasing the filler material loading in matrix surface which reduces the indentation so values are low. Mica filled material shows low hardness number due to bond strength.…

    • 1024 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Figures (5) shows that, the solid line represent the results from calculation of mathematical model at [Al] = 0.5% and the points represent the results of experiments. The practical points proof the mathematical model of desulfurization by mixture of Mischmetal and feldspar and CaF2 has a positive effect on enhancing desulfurization process. While figure (6) shows that, the solid line represent the results from calculation of mathematical model at [Al] = 0.5% and the points represent the results of experiments which proof that, with increasing the proportion of rare earth metal to feldspar decreases Desulphurization degree. For industrial application using rare earth oxide will be more economic than mischmetal for desulfurization. Because the price of mischmetal is doubled bulk rare earth oxide and it is almost near to each other for the removed sulfur which was 42% for rare earth oxide and 50% for mischmetal.…

    • 1266 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays