• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Immune system

-protect us from infections

If an individual will be diseased or not depends on...

immune system strength and amount of attacking pathogens.

immune system failure occurs

when amount of pathogens and their virulence/pathogenicity exceed the ability of immune system.

Innate immune system

non specific, first line of defense, generic

Adaptive immune system

acquired, B & T cells, context with pathogen induces specific clones, immunological memory, basis of vaccination

Non-cellular innate system effectors

cytokines (interferon) and complement

Cellular innate system effectors

Macro-phages and other phagocytes, nk cells

Non cellular effectors of the adaptive immune system


Cellular effectors of the adaptive immune system

T cells (CD4, CD8)

Two main parts of blood

Plasma and elements

What are the "elements" blood

White blood cells, red blood cells, platelets

White blood cells (leukocytes) can be divided into what two categories?

Granulocytes and A granulocytes


- type of white blood cells that include: Neutrophils, basophils, Esinophils


- A type of white blood cells that include Monocytes, and lymphocytes


A type of Agranulocyte which includes, T cells, Bcells, and NK cells

Dendritic cell

A white blood cell in the category of agranulocyte and is the initiator of the adaptive immune response.

Plasma cells

are "descendants" of B cells which produce antibodies

T cell function

cell mediated iimmunity

Natural killer (NK) cells

Destroy target cells by cytolysis and apoptosis


- A type of whit blood cell in the category of Agranulocyte which performs phagocytosis when they full mature into macrophages


make up about 60-70% of white blood cells. Phagocytes.


Make histamine


Production of toxic proteins against certain parasites and some of them are phagocytes.

Immune responsive cells of the innate immune system

Monocytes, Granulocytes, Lymphocytes

Monocytes are located in

the circulatory system and tissues

In response to inflammation signals, monocytes can

move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues and divide/differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells


- Found in the circulatory system and tissues, possess surface receptors for manosse and fructose, recognize common surface antigens like LPS, perform phagocytosis

Dendrite cells

Found on the surface of structures like skin and mucous membranes. Star-like shape, surface recognition via PAMPS, phagocytosis followed by migration to lymphoid tissues

Neutrophils (PolyMorphonuclear Neutrophils: PMN's)

Mainly Phagocytes, more than 60%. Granules contain lytic enzymes and antimicrobial substances


-No phagocytic, inflammatory reaction, and allergic reaction, Parasitic infection ( relsease of ROS)


Not phagocytic, inflammatory reaction and allergic reaction,


helper T cells


Cytotoxic T cells

Steps of phagocytosis

1. Ingestion through phagoccytosis , and phagosome is formed. 2. The fusion of lysosomes with the phagosome creates a phagolysosome, the pathogen is broken down by enzymes 3. Waste material is expelled or assimilated.

What is the cause of acute inflammation?

Common pathogens or allergens

Cells that are involved in acute inflammation

Granulocytes and monocytes

Mediators of acute inflammation

Amines and Eicosanoids


Long fatty acid that acts on inflammatory pathways

Onset of acute inflammation

immediate ( results noticed in a couple of minuets)

Duration of acute inflammation

Few days to a couple of weeks

Outcomes of acute inflammation

Heal, abscess formation, or chronic inflammation

Cause of chronic inflammation

Non-degradable pathogens (virus)

Cells involved in chronic inflammation

Monocytes, Lymphocytes

Mediators of chronic inflammation

Cytokines and ROS

Onset of chronic inflammation

Delayed ( an acute phase if presents is usually not noticed)

Duration of chronic inflammation

Months to years

Outcomes of chronic inflammation

Tissue destruction and necrosis

Lysozymes break what kind of bonds?

Glycosidic bonds

Glycosidic bonds are found...

between sugar monomeric units

Amount of digestive enzymes found in a lysosome:

about 50

Influx of immune-active components to the site results in

inflammation/tissue swell

The major function of the innate immune system

recruiting immune cells to the site of infection by producing chemical factors and specialized chemical mediators called cytokines.

Chemical mediators involved in the immune system

Cationic proteins, complement system, cytokines

Cationic proteins

carthelicidin, defensins; usually ionophores which alter membrane permeability of pathogens; glycoproteins

Complement system

Glycoproteins; inserted into bacterial membranes resulting in lysis, facilitates antibody recognition which results in opsinization, attracts macrophages and neutrophils through chemotaxis,


Glycoproteins and proteins; signal molecules secreted by almost every nucelated cell, includes interluekins and inerferons

Three pathways of complement action

alternative pathway, MB lectin pathway, and classic pathway

Classic complement pathway acctivation

binding of antibodies formed during the adaptive immune response

Mannose binding lectin ( Mb lectin) complement pathway activation

Lectin binds to mannose which is a common surface component of bacteria, fungi, and some enveloped viruses. This opsonizes the pathogen and enhances phagocytosis.

Alternative complement pathway activation

Bacterial cell wall components with repetitive surface structures like LPS; formation of membrane attack complex which is inserted into the pathogens membrane.

Complements are found in _______ and made by __________.

the circulatory system, liver

Formation of ionic pores by cathelicin and defensins cause

disruption of the electron transport chain which results in the organism losing energy and motility.


Any substance that can stimulate an immune response but not necessarily its entire structure is immunogenic.

If a antigen is to large

it is processed into small epitope units

If an antigen is too small

carrier proteins called heptans enhance recognition


Sub-region/structure of an antigen that is the actual antigenic determinants.

Major histocompatibility complex:

distinguish between self and non-self. Exists on the surface of almost all human cells. participants in antigen processing.


found on almost all cells. Mostly respond to viral infections. Present proteins found within the cytoplasm of the cell.

Events of viral infection detection involving MHC1

viral invaison > cviral protein digestion > presents as MHC 1 viral protein complex on the surface of the cell > recognized by CD8 cells > cytotoxic T cell activation


- found on leukocytes (macrophaages, dendrite cells, some B and T cells), recognized by helper T (CD4) cells, presents contents found in the extracellular space

Process of MHC 2 presentaion

Extracellular pathogen > phagocytosis and digestion > presents as MHC2 digested protein fragment complex > recognized by Th CD4 cell, helper T cell activation > Tjh clonal multiplication

Cytokine procuction from T cells modulates

both specific and non specific host defenses

T cell response steps

Recognition of peptide epitope from MHC complex, Production of cytokines, Direct killing (cytotoxicity) of foreign cells and infected host cells.

B cell response steps

Antigen triggering from monomeric IgM, production of Ab

T cell dependents B cell activation

triggered by small foreign proteins, strog response, production of memory cells, boosted by immunization

T cell independent B cell activation

Triggered by large repeating surface structure like polysaccharides, weaker response, lower antibody affinity to antigens, no memory cell production, does not produce effective immunization

What antibody is usually secreted first?

Pentameric IgM


usually secreted second and is more specific that the primarily secreted antibody


Has a dimeric structure


contains variable region for antigen binding


contains constant region, effector function, interaction with complement components, interaction with phagocytes.

Adverse effect of the immune system

Tolerance: self antigen recognition due to the non fool proof mechanism which can be disrupted by genetic disposition, chronic infection, drugs and toxins, these can be organ specific or systemic

Type one Hypersensitivity reaction: Immediate Hypersensitivity

caused by reexposure to an antigen, the mediator is histamine from mast cell, and the antibody involved is IgE

Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction: antibody mediated

caused by antibody misbinding on host cells (Molecular mimicry), mediators are recruitment of phagocytic cells and cytotoxic T cells, antobodies involved are IgG and IgM, and some examples would be auto immue haemolytic anemia, acute rheumatic fever,

Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction: Immune complex

Caused by Excessive Ag-Ab complexes, mediators are the non cleared Ag-Ab complexes which eventually deposit in blood vessels, joints and organ, antibodies involves are IgG and some examples would be Lupus and Reactive arthritis

Type 4 hypersensitivity reaction: Delayed type

Hyper activated macrophage ( secreting too much TNF), mediated y TNF recruiting monocytes which create wall off but with significant local damaged, no antibodies are involved, and some examples would be Rheumatic arthritis and Chron's disease.