• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Aseptic technique

a procedure used by medical staff to keep patients free from infectious microorganisms

What is the goal of aseptic technique?

To reach a sepsis

What is Asepsis?

means an environment free of any harmful microorganisms

Differences between 19th century surgery room and a 20 century surgery room:

- Face masks - Ordinary sowing thread to stitch wounds - Surgical tools are not sterilized - Surgery room was not disinfected - No antibiotics id pt got infected

First surgeon to use disinfectant on surgical room

Joseph Lister used Carbonic acid (phenol)

Growth control of microorganisms

- infection control

Industries where growth control of microorganisms is practiced:

Food industry, water treatment. Pharmaco-chemical industry, Fuel and energy industry

Infection control shares the same background of

microbial growth control

Two parts of infectious disease control

Sterilization and disinfection


Complete killing or removal


Partial killing; population control; dropping below ID,


disinfecting agents used on body surface


Disinfecting agents that cannot be used on body surfaces

4 controlling factors

Nutrient availability, Physio-chemical/environmental parameters, Competition, Host immune system

main controllable Physio-chemical/environmental parameters

Temperature, water availability, Drug, ETC

Sterilization techniques

Heat, gas, UV/ionization, Filtration

Heat sterilization example


Gas sterilization example

Ethylene oxide, formaldehyde

U/V ionization radiation as a sterilizing agent...

is less effective because microbes can revert

Filtration sterilization

<0.2 um; for bacterial but nor for viral

Explanation of filter size for filtering sterilization

Theoretical size of bacteria 1 um; endospores 0.25um


Virus particles outside of host; inert

Difference between virion and virus:

virus is metabolically active

Physical disinfection techniques

Filtration ( pore size >0.2), Pasteurization, Microwaves

Chemical disinfection techniques:

Alcohol, Halogens, Hydrogen peroxide, surfactants, Phenolic, Aldehydes

Halogens used as disinfectants

Iodine, chlorine, Hypochlorite

Percentage of alcohol that is most effective for disinfection

70%; because it contains enough water to permeate the cell membrane; when it evaporates the cells is dried: this works exceptionally well on fungal cells.

Classic antibiotics


Modern antibiotics

antibacteria;, antiviral, antifungal


Kills microbes


Stops the growth of microbes

Essential feature of antibiotics that separates them from antiseptics...

The can be administered INSIDE our bodies

Produce antibacterial drugs

Penicillium or steptomyces


growth inhibition and killing


growth inhibition

Target of antibacterial drugs

Cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, Nucleic acif synthesis, membrane structure

Antibacterial drug that targets cell wall synthesis

Mostly beta lactam class

Antibacterial drugs that target protein synthesis

Tetracyclinees, Macrolides, Aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol

Antibacterial drugs that target nucleic acid sythesis

Quinolones, folate, inhibitors (sulfonamides), rifampin

Antibacterial drugs that target membrane structure

Polymyxin B, Deptomycin

Activity level of autoclave and spectrum

Sterilizing; high; general usage

Activity level and spectrum of Boiling

High; Most pathogens, some spores, general useage

Activity level of Pasteurization and spectrum

Sterilizing; all; general usage

Activity level of ethylene oxide gas and specturm

Sterilizing; all ; Potentially explosive so aeration required

Ultra violet radiation activity level and spectrum

Sterilizing; all; Poor penetration

Ionizing radiation activity level and spectrum

Sterilizing; all; general and food usage

Alcohol activity level and spectrum

Intermediate; Vegetative bacteria, fungi, and some viruses

Hydrogen peroxide activity level and spectrum

High; Vegetative bacteria and fungi; contact lenses; inactivated by organic matter

Chlorine activity level and spectrum

High; viruses, vegetative bacteria, and fungi; water; inactivated by organic matter

Idophors activity level and spectrum

Intermediate; Viruses, vegetative bacteria, and fungi; Skin disinfection; inactivated by organic matter

Phenolics activity level and spectrum

Intermediate; some viruses, vegetative bacteria, fungi; handwashing

Glutaraldehyde activity level and spectrum

High; all; use on endoscopes and other equipment

Quaternary ammonia compounds activity level and spectrum

Low; most bacteria and fungi; lipophilic viruses; used for general cleaning; inactivated by organic matter.

Beta lactam class antibiotics mainly work on....

Gram + bacteria

_______ spectrum antibiotics are more effective if you know the cause of the infection

narrow ( more specific)

Challenge when using anti-fungal drugs:

they are hard on the human liver and considered as toxins.

An antibiotic which is effective against obligate parasitic Bacteria and which has the broadest spectrum


Good at treating gram negatives and mycobacterium with a broad spectrum


Downsides for antifungal drugs

Few available, less stable activities, can be toxic to humans, poor diffusion into tissues, superficial and self limiting

Fungal infections become problematic in immunocompromised individuals because;

they invade deeper into the tissues and become systemic

Down sides of antiviral drugs:

few, available, narrow spectrum, biostatic, toxicity to host

What do biostatic antiviral medications do?

inhibit viral replication and limit or slow viral infection cycle

Antiviral actions of mechanism

Inhibitors of attachment, inhibitors of penetration and uncoating, inhibitors of release, inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis, inhibitors of reverse transcriptase, inhibitors of viral assembly