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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is conferred when cells and physiological process are incompatible with other species?
Species resistance
What is the first line of defense?
structures, chemicals, and processes that work together to prevent pathogens from entering the body in the first place.
The second line of defense involves what?
internal structures such as protective cells, blood0borne chemicals, and processes that inactivate or kill invaders
First line of defense + second line of defense = ?
innate immunity
True or False

Innate immunity is very specific
False- it's not very specific
What is the third line of defense?
Adaptive immunity
What are the two layers of skin?
Dermis and epidermis
Which cell layer contains dendritic cells?

What is another name for dendritic cells?

What are the functions of dendritic cells?
Phagocytize pathogens nonspecifically and play a role in adaptive immunity.
Dermal cells secrete ___.
antimicrobial pepties
Sweat glands secrete a class of antimicrobial peptides called ___/
____ is an enzyme that destroys the cell walls of bacteria by cleaving the bonds between the sugar subunits of the walls.
Skin and _____ are two examples of the first line of defense.
Mucous-secreting membranes
True or False

Mucus contains antimicrobial peptides called defensins, but not antibodies.
False- they contain both
____ is an environment that is free from all other organisms or viruses
True or False

Tears contain lysozyme
Antimicrobial peptides are chains of about ___ amino acids that act against microorganisms
What are some ways that antimicrobial peptides work?
1. Some can punch holes in their cytoplasmic membrane

2. Some can interrupt cell signaling or enzymatic action

3. Some recruit leukocytes to site.
Cells produce antimicrobial peptieds when microbial chemicals bind to ______ on host cells' membrane.
Toll-like receptors
Lipoteichoic acid binds to____.
Lipid A (endotoxin) binds to
Flagellin binds to
The second line of defense is composed of ____, ______, and ____.
cells, antimicrobial chemicals, processes
Plasma contains
electrolytes, dissolved gases, nutrients, and proteins
When clotting factors have been removed from the plasma the result is ____/
How is iron transported in the plasma?
via transferrin
Excess iron is stored in the liver bound to ____
How does staphylococcus aureus respond to a shortage of iron?

How does the body respond to this?
By secreting their own iron-binding proteins called siderophores

by producing lactopherrin
Cells and cell fragments suspended in the plasma are called ______.
Formed elements
What are the 3 types of formed elements?
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
Leukocytes are divided into two groups ____ & ____
granulocytes and agranulocytes
Basophils stain ____ with what dye?
blue with methylene blue (a basic dye)
Eosinophils stain ___ with what dye?
red to orange with an acidic dye (eosin)
Neutrophils stain ____ with what dye?
lilac with a mixture of acidic and basic dyes
Which granulcytes phagocytize pathogens?
neutrophils and eosinophils
Define diapedesis aka emigration
Ability to attack microbes by leaving the blood stream via squeezing between cells lining the capillaries
Basophils funciton in ___.
Eosinophils can also help to defend the body against ___>
parasitic worms
What are two types of agranulocytes?
Monocyte and lymphocytes
List some fixed macrophages
alveolar macrophages of the lungs, microglia of the CNS, and Kuppfer cells of the liver
Dendritic cells are a type of ____
macrophages + monocytes =
mononuclear phagocytic system
the _______ can serve as a sign of disease
differential white blood count
What are some mechanisms of the body's second line of defense?
phagocytosis, extracellular killing by leukocytes, nonspecific chemical defenses, inflammation, and fever
What are the five steps of phagocytosis?
1. chemotaxis
2. adherence
3. ingestion
4. killing
5. elimination
Phagocytes use ____ for positive chemotaxis
Leukocytes releas chemotactic factors which contain ___ and ___.
complement and chemokines
What is the term for coating mathogens with antimicrobial proteins?
A food vesicle formed after ingestion of microbes is called a
A phagosome comines with lysosomes are called
____ is an indication of helminth infestation
Which two cells secrete protein toxins to destroy invadors?
eosinophils and NK clells
Neutrophils can disable microorganisms in theif vicinty by generatiNG extracellular fibers composed of DNA, histones, a protein
NETs (Neutrophil extracellular traps)which bind and kill both gram neg and gram positive cells
The complement system initially act as ___ and ____ and then indirectly trigger ____ and _____.
opsonins and chemotactic factors

inflammation and fever
In the classical pathway of the complement system ____ activates it.
In the alternate pathway, ___ or ____ activate complement
pathogenic products
What are the end products of the entire cascade in the complement system?
Membrane Attack Complexes (MACs)
____ act against viruses and are released by the host cell.
What are teh 3 classes of interferons?
Alpha, betta, and gamma
Alfpha interferon is secreted by ___
Beta interferon is secreted by ____.
fibroblasts (when infected by viruses)
True or False

Interferons proteict cells that secrete them
False, they activate nk lypmphocytes and protect any neighbooring, uninfected cells
What are to AVPs that are secreted?
oligoadenylate synthetase and protein kinase
Gamma interferon is produces by _____
activated T lymphocytes and NK lymphocytes
Damaged cells also release various chemcials such as
histamine, prostaglandin, leukutrienes
_____ and ____ leak from blood vessils during dilation and resulting in _____.
prostaglandins and leukotrienes

What are the steps of inflammation?
1. Dilation and increased permeability of blood vessels

2. Migration of phagocytes

3. Tissue repair
Fever os anody temperature above ___ degress celsius.
What chemicals trigger fever?
Pyrogens (such as interleukin-1 which is produced by phagocytes