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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Mass number and Atomic number of an element
quantum #s: electron address
n: 1...infinity. aka energy level
l: 0...(n-1) subshell (e.g. s,p,d,f)
m(l): -l....+l orientation
m(s): +1/2 or -1/2 up or down
Quantum Numbers
Electron Configuration exceptions
those elements located at d4 and d9 want to make orbitals half-full or full.

e.g. Cr [Ar]4s1 3d5

Cr, Cu, Mo, Ag, Au
when there is unpaired electrons
odd # e- always paramagnetic

attracted to magnetic field
when electrons are paired at each orbital
very slight repulsion to magnetic field

even # e-....either para or diamagnetic.
How many electrons per shell?
2n^2 e-/shell
alpha decay
alpha = helium
only Z>83
beta- decay
n to p...because n/p >> 1
beta+ (positron) decay
p to n...N/Z << 1
Electron capture
p to n...N/Z << 1
gamma decay
mass defect
mass is less than the sum. Iron 56 has highest Nuc binding energy.
E/nucleon is proportional to ∆mass/nucleon
Unstable Nuclei
Odd # of protons and/or neutrons
Stable Nuclei
N/Z ~ 1 and Z < 20

magic #s for N or Z:
2, 8, 20, 50, 82, 126
Effective Nuclear Charge (Zeff)

Zeff = group #
Generally speaking, effective nuc. charge is charge felt by the valence electrons after you have taken into account the number of shielding electrons that surround the nucleus.
Example: Lithium, three protons and electron config. 1s2 2s1. The e- in 2s orbital is shielded from full attraction of the protons by the e- in the 1s orbital. Thus, Z* felt by the 2s electron should be one rather than three.
Atomic Radius
down and to the left.
Na > Na+
Cl- > Cl
Ionization Energy
up and right.
energy required to remove 1e-. 2nd e- is much harder to remove.
d5 and d10 Elements are more stable.
Electron Affinity
increase from left to right.
Energy change associated with gaining an e-
up and right.
smaller radius = higher e- neg.
(strongest, meta/nonmetal, high m.p., high b.p.)
(metal/metal, malleable, ductile)
(nonmetal/nonmetal, lower m.p, b.p.)
sharing pairs of e-
molecular: h2O
network solid: diamond, graphite
Formal Charge
Normal # V.E. - Actual # V.E.
Intermolecular Forces
Hydrogen Bonding (strongest of Inter's)
London Dispersion/Van der Waals
Branching of alkanes

decreases b.p.
increases m.p.
Longer Alkane (effects on b.p.)
longer carbon chain increases SA, greater london dispersion force

therefore increases b.p.
Phase Diagram
Phase Diagram for CO2
1atm is lower than the triple point. This is why it sublimes (solid to gas)
Phase Diagram for H2O
This explains why ice floats (ice is less dense than liquid water).
q = mc∆T

q = heat change
m = mass
c = specific heat
∆T = Tf - Ti
Phase Transitions
s-l-g (H>0, S>0)
fusion, sublimation, vaporization

g-l-s (H<0, S<0)
condensation, deposition, crystallization
Ideal Gas
Each gas molecule has no volume.
No intermolecular forces. All collisions are elastic.
KE ∝ T
1atm = 760 torr = 760 mmHg
STP = 0∘C, 1atm
1 mole gas = 22.4L
Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
P1 = X1 Ptot
Graham's Law of Effustion
Rate is proportional to velocity, lighter gas has faster veloctiy

M = molar mass
Combined Gas Law
P ∝ 1/V
P ∝ T
V ∝ T
Solubility Rules
1) All Group I metal, NH4+, and NO3- salts are soluble
2) Most Ag+, Pb2+, and Hg₂2+ salts are insoluble
Freezing Pt. Depression
m is number of ions, Ba(OH)2 has 3 ions when dissociated
Vapor Pressure Depression (Raoult's Law)
Boiling pt. Elevation
Boiling pt. Elevation
Osmotic Pressure
water moves across membrane from (low solute) high water conc. to low conc.

pie = MRT or P = (n/V)RT
Speeds up reaction by lowering Ea.
Does not get used up. starts as reactant and ends up as product. (an intermediate is the reverse)
Rxn Coordinate Diagram

Identify Transition State, Intermediates, delta H
delta H < 0 because final is less than initial
Rate Law
only reactants in rate law.
coefficients do not determine order.
x, y exponents indicate order
Common Ion Effect
increasing concentration of ion will decrease solubility
Le Chatelier's Principle
Add something to a rxn, the rxn will adjust to regain equilibrium.

In Exothermic (T is product), increasing T will cause a shift to LEFT
increase in P = decrease in V
increase V then shift to the side with more moles of gas
Strong Acids
perchloric, chloric, hydrochloric....
Strong Bases
Binary Acid Trend (anything with H)
more e.n. the atom, stronger pull on H and makes it easier to give up H.
bigger the atom, longer and weaker the bond, therefore, easier to give up.
OxyAcid Trend
everything else being equal, more Oxygen, more acidic.

more e.n., more acidic
[H+] of WEAK acids
this equation is only for weak acids
3 LAWS of Thermodynamics
1. Conservation of Energy
2. ∆Suniv. > 0
3. S = 0 at 0K
Systems: open, closed, isolated
open: exchange of heat, work, matter
closed: exchange of heat and work
isolated: no exchange
Neutral Cations
Conjugates of strong bases e.g. group 1A metals
all other cations are acidic
Neutral Anions/Bases
Conjugates of strong acids e.g. Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, ClO4-, ClO3-

1 strong conjugate: HSO4-

almost all other anions are bases
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (or buffer equation)
Bond Enthalpies
∆H = ∑Dbroken - ∑Dformed

D = bond

bond breaking is endo
bond making is exo
(think alphabetical b to endo, m to exo)
Enthalpies of Formation (Hess's Law)
products or reactants in elemental state have ZERO formation values. e.g. Cl2, O2 etc.
∆G = ∆H - T∆S
(Get Higher Test Scores)
remember trends:
postive ∆S helps to go spont.
negative ∆H helps to go spont.
T amplifies S
Electrochemical Cells (for all cells)
AN-ode OX-idation
RED-uction CAT-hode

e- always flow from anode to cathode (because e- are lost at anode, gained at cathode, cathode gains mass)

salt bridge: anions flow to anode, cations to cathode
Galvanic/Voltaic Cell
cathode +

anode -
Electrolytic Cell
cathode -

anode +

consumes energy: e- goes to neg. cathode (not spontaneous)
Oxidation States
1) Elements in their elemental form are in the zero oxidation state.
2) Group 1 metals are +1 and Group 2 metals are +2.
3) Hydrogen is +1 except when bonded to metals (when it’s –1).
4) The most electronegative elements get their typical ox state.
5) The last element not assigned balances the charge of the compound/ion.
Spontaneous Rxn's
∆G < 0
Ecell > 0
Q < K