Hydrochloric acid is a clear is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses.
Major production started in the Industrial Revolution, hydrochloric acid is used in the chemical industry as a chemical reagent in the large-scale production of PVC plastic, and MDI/TDI for polyurethane. It has numerous smaller-scale applications, including household cleaning, production of gelatine and other food additives, descaling, and leather processing. About 20 million tonnes of hydrochloric acid are produced worldwide annually.
Chemical properties and reactions:
Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a monoprotic acid, which means it can dissociate to give up one H+ ion. In aqueous hydrochloric acid, the H+ joins a water …show more content…
Hydrochloric acid can therefore be used to prepare salts called chlorides, such as sodium chloride. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid, due to its ability to completely dissociate in water.
Monoprotic acids have one acid dissociation constant, Ka, which indicates the level of dissociation in water. For a strong acid like HCl, the Ka value is large. When chloride salts such as NaCl are added to aqueous HCl they have practically no effect on pH, indicating that Cl− is an extremely weak conjugate base and that HCl is fully dissociated in aqueous solution. For intermediate to strong solutions of hydrochloric acid, the assumption that H+ molarity equals HCl, is a very accurate due to the complete ionization of HCl.
Of the six common strong mineral acids in chemistry, hydrochloric acid is the monoprotic acid least likely to undergo an interfering oxidation-reduction reaction. It is one of the least hazardous strong acids to handle; despite its acidity, it consists of the non-reactive and non-toxic chloride ion. Intermediate-strength hydrochloric acid solutions are quite stable upon storage, maintaining their concentrations over time. These attributes, plus the fact that it is available as a pure reagent, make hydrochloric acid an excellent acidifying …show more content…
Acid base titrations:
A titration is the addition of a measured volume of one solution, from a burette, to an unknown volume/concentration of another solution until the reaction between then is complete. An acid base titration is carried out to determine an unknown concentration by using a solution of known concentration. An indicator is used to show a dramatic and rapid colour change, at the end point of the titration.
Preparing a standard solution:
The substance used for the standard solution must have a high degree of purity, preferably solid, because this is easier to measure (using a scale) and the substance can’t absorb water or release water.
Oxalic acid and anhydrous sodium carbonate are used to make the standard solutions.
The solid crystals must be weighed accurately and then transferred to a volumetric flask. It must then be filled up to the mark, so that we have a known mass in a known volume.
The concentration can be calculated by using the formula n=m/M
Your number of moles can then be substituted to find the concentration