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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1st Law of Thermodynamics
The total energy of the universe is constant, that is, it cannot be created or destroyed. (You can't win.)
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Processes tend to run toward entropy. (You can't break even).
Equation for internal energy of a system
dE= q+w, where dE is proportional to Temp
Isochloric system
A system where thre is no change in volume.
dE=q because w=-PdV=0
Work of a system
when a piston moves up, there is a gain in PE, system is doing work on the surroundings
Isobaric SYstem
Isothermal System
Adiabatic System
no heat is transferred between the system and its surroundings

all energy is transferred as work
the measurement of things moving toward disorder
the energy that must be put into a bond in order to break it

when a bond is formed, energy is released
Heat of a rxn
change in enthalpy (dH)

-dH= exothermic
+dH= endothermic
Heat of a rxn for diatomic and monatomic elements in their natural state
Standard state
298K (25C), 1 atm pressure, 1M
Hess's Law
The sum of energies absorbed or released in all steps will be the same as that of the overall reaction.
Rules for Applying Hess's Law
1. If a rxn is reversed, the sign of dH is reversed

2. If an equation is multiplied by a constant, dH is also multiplied by the same constant
Gibbs Free Energy
dG= dH-TdS

-dG= spontaneous rxn
+dG= nonspontaneous rxn
dg=0= equilibrium
Spon or Nonspon?
-dH +dS
spon (-dG)
Spon or Nonspon?
+dH +dS
spon at high temps (-dG)
nonspon at low temps (+dG)
Spon or Nonspon?
-dH -dG
nonspon at high temps (+dG)
spon at low temps (-dG)
Spon or Nonspon?
+dH -dS
Nonspon (+dG)
Catalysts are able to change dS, dH, and dG
Thermodynamics and Equilibrium
dG (standard state)= -2.3 RTlog Keq, where Keq=10^(-dG/5700)@STP
-dG (standard state)= spon, Keq> 1
+dG (standard state) = nonspon, Keq<1
0=dG (standard state)= equil, Keq=1
Mass defect
the difference in the masses of individual nucleons and their mass when combined
what is the equation to find the energy that is made when nucleons come together
c= speed of light
m = mass defect