Acids And Bases Essay

2199 Words 9 Pages
Part A: Background Information
Acids and bases are very common in today’s society, and they can be found in most households. Acids can be found as by-products of air pollution, concrete cleaner, food flavouring and is produced by the muscle. Bases are found in most cleaning products as ammonia or sodium hydroxide, and they also treat indigestion.
There are many ways that acids and bases can be defined by their chemical properties. The Bronsted-Lowry definition states that acids are proton (hydrogen ion that loses its electron) donors and bases are proton acceptors. For example, hydrochloric acid would donate its hydrogen atom to water to become hydronium, HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl-. The Arrhenius definition claims that acids produce positive hydrogen
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explain that the Ka is the ratio of ionized acid product to unionized acid reactant which is why a large number means there is more ionization  you could also explain what equilibrium is and Keq and how it relates, what is a reversible reaction? Make sure you ask if you need help.

Following the principle of the Bronsted-Lowry definition, a conjugate acid is a base that accepts a proton and a conjugate base is an acid that accepts a proton. For example,
CH3COOH + H2O → CH3COO- + H3O+
Acetic acid water acetate ion hydronium ion
Acetic acid donates its proton to water, creating the acetate ion and hydronium ion. In reverse, the acetate ion receives a proton from the hydronium ion creating acetic acid and water. The acetate ion acts as a base in reverse, so it is called the conjugate base of acetic acid. Together they are known as an acid-base conjugate pair. This is the same for the water and hydronium ion.
This is not the case for all acid and base reactions, however. Sometimes the reverse of the chemical equation cannot happen. This is because of the different strengths of an acid or a base.
- A strong acid has a weak conjugate base
- A weak acid has a strong conjugate base
- A strong base has a weak conjugate
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The sulfuric acid allows the flow of electron between the two plates inside the battery. Sulfuric acid used in this way is commonly called “battery acid” and usually has a strength of around 4.2-5M concentration (R. Martin, 2014). The chemical energy inside the battery is converted into electrical energy by a redox (oxidation reduction) reaction. This is “the complete or partial transfer of electrons from one reactant to another” (Heinemann, 2007). A typical lead-acid battery consists of two electrodes - one negatively charged lead electrode and a positively charged lead dioxide electrode. In the lead electrode, the sulfate ions ionise and release two electron into the electrode, Pb + SO4-2 → PbSO4 + 2e-. In the positively charged electrode, the sulfate and hydrogen ions meet the lead dioxide molecule. The lead atoms ionise with sulfate and two water molecules are released into the solution (electrolyte), PbO2 + SO4-2 + 4H+ + 2e- → PbSO4 + 2H2O (ECEN, date unknown). Lead-acid batteries contain six galvanic cells, each producing 2 volts, so in total it produces twelve volts of electricity. These batteries are also rechargeable since the products of the reactants do not leave the electrodes. The electrical energy gets converted back into chemical energy and the reactions start again (AUS-e-TUTE,

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