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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The first human taxonomist was


The Bible gives us the concepts leading to the development of sciences such as ___________ and _________.

genetics and taxonomy

When grouping and identifying living things, the classification is based on ________ and ________.

similarities and differences

Moses wrote down the concepts that led to the development of scientific tools with the authority and inspiration of __________.

The Holy Spirit

Define "after it's kind".

It simply means that animals reproduce similar offspring; thus, reproducing after it's kind

Did the ancient people classify plants and animals by use?


What did Aristotle contribute to taxonomy?

The classification of plants into 3 groups; herbs, shrubs, trees

What did Theophrastos contribute to taxonomy?

He wrote about 500 different types of plants and classified into 4 groups; herbs, shrubs, subshrubs, trees

What is one difference between the ways Aristotle and Theophrastos classified plants?

Theophrastos noted differences in plant tissues and differences between flowering and non-flowering plants

What was one problem of early books on taxonomy?

They were often copied off of earlier writings, thus creating many errors

For what were the herbalists known?

For making up information about a plant if they couldn't find any.

How did Cordus differ from early writers?

He used first hand observation to write his books.

The Swedish botanist who made the greatest contributions to taxonomy was _____________ who is known as the "______________".

Carolus Linnaeus and he is known as the "father of modern taxonomy".

What were two of Linnaeus' contributions?

The system of Linnaeus and the fixity of species

What are two of Linnaeus' most important writings?

Species Plantarum, and Systema Naturae

What was the feature most significant to plant classification in the Linnaeus system?

The use of two names together in identifying an organism

How did Linnaeus' concepts of kinds differ from ours today?

His concept did not permit variation or change at all. Also, the definition of species today is not the same as the one in Linnaeus' day.


all organisms of a kind in an area

fixity of species

a group of organisms that are capable of reproducing more of that group


the science of heredity (inheritance)

Ways of grouping plants and animals in ancient times might be by _______________ and _______________.

usefulness and harmfulness

One of the Greek taxonomists who grouped animals by blood color and plants by size and shape was ___________.


Egyptians of Moses' day taught that snakes came from ___________.

horse hair and flies

An herbalist might use an interpretation known as ___________ to suggest a plant's use for medicinal remedies by its shape

doctrine of signatures

Two important developments of the Renaissance were ___________ and _________>

reading books and navigation

classification groupings today are made on the basis of how organisms are ______ and _______/

similar and different

When did scientists begin to study and observe real plants and animals?

the Renaissance


herbs, shrubs, trees;red and non-red blood


herbs, shrubs, subshrubs, trees; flowering and non-flowering plants


medical and agricultural plants with fables


medical plant lore


Persian doctor; Canon of Medicine


herbal-a book on medical classification and identification of plants


one of the first Renaissance scientists to use first-hand observations to write about plants


plant register; Pinax; used groupings and a form of scientific names


grouped plants on similarities; idea of species


two-word, scientific names; Species plantarum

What were Linnaeus' contributions to taxonomy?

Binomial systems, easier classification, number of stamens per flower, system of Linnaeus, and his theory on the fixity of species

What was the difference between the study of taxonomy in Rome and Greece?

Rome preferred power over knowledge

The language of taxonomy is usually


Humans differ from all other life forms by possessing a


Rules for naming plants and animals are found in the

International code of Nomenclature

Information that depends more on the scientist's feelings and thoughts than on actual observations is said to be


Problems in developing a new and better system include ____________, ____________, ____________, and _______________.

complexity of classifying, limitations of knowledge, limitations of personal experience, and lack of firsthand information

One of the needs of today's taxonomy is

more information

taxonomy is _____.

a very old science

A group of organisms which has been reclassified is

the English sparrow

The binomial nomenclature is credited to



reproductive isolation and morphology


plants or animals

common name



a group of organisms capable of producing organisms of the same group


phylum, class, order, etc.

Groups of similar organisms within a species are called

subspecies or varieties

The first word of the scientific name is underline and capitalized, functions as a ______ and tells the _________.

functions as a noun and tells the genus of the organism

The way a plant looks is its _____


A number of similar families make up an


Organisms that can interbreed and produce offspring that can grow to produce young are of the same _____.


The separation of species due to some type of barrier to produce young for more than one generation is ________________.

Reproductive isolation

The second-largest taxon is called a ________ when categorizing plants and a _________ when categorizing animals.

division for plants and phylum for animals

Give the same taxa in order: (rap first letters of names)

Kingdom, Division or Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Two problems in developing a new and better system of classification are

Limitations of experience, limitations of knowledge

What characteristic does animals and plants both share?


Classification systems have from ____ to _____ kingdoms depending on the taxonomist

2 to 6

An effective system of taxonomy should be _______________________.

detailed but usable

The smallest plant division is


The largest plant division is


What phylum are humans a part of?


the largest animal phylum is


Are there more or less animal species than plant species?


is species the smallest unit of classification?






does a common name have popular usage?



groups of families

True or false; To a taxonomist a plant is the sum total of all its characteristics


Classification systems

vary with the taxonomists

When a species is made up of different smaller groups, each of those smaller groups is known as a


A tool used in classification


A list of choices that follows in a sequence for identification is a


When there are 2 choices for each level of the sequence for identification, that classifying tool is called a

dichotomous key

When any classification tool has a set of different choices about the same subject, such as the leaf shape is round or the leaf shape is heart-shaped, the choices are said to be


In the animal key, the scientific name for the leopard frog is

Rana pibiens

The Latin ending for family is usually __________ for plants and _______ for animals

-aceae for plants and -ae for animals


without bias

What is one overlooked benefit of a natural system?

It would create many new descriptions and new information on plants and animals

Artificial system of taxonomy

A classification plan based on grouping by certian outstanding features of a plant or animal

Natural system of taxonomy

A classification plan based on relationships of common ancestry or evolution

2 sciences which have helped to show and develop variations of kinds of living things are __________, and ________.

plant breeding and animal husbandry

If the theory of evolution were true, there would be records of observable changes of

one kind of plant or animal into some other kind


Basic lifeforms were created by the direct act of God and continue to reproduce their kinds within limits of variation to produce life as we see it today


all life on earth developed from nonliving matter by natural processes

5 differences between creation and evolution as theories of origin:

Method, time, order, continuity, purpose

plant breeding

new varieties of roses

animal husbandry

new varieties of chickens




why people think the way they do

Herbalists contributed

medicinal uses of plants

A diagram showing variations of life developing from creation would appear as a


A diagram showing variations and speciation of life developing from evolution would appear as a


Classifying by using flower color, leaf shape, and leaf arrangement sre examples of an ___________ system of classification

artificial system of classification

According to today's _________ system of classification, any characteristic may provide clues to relationships among living things


The idea that one species can give rise to new kinds of species, new genera, new families, orders, classes, kingdoms is known as ____________>


"Basic kinds of lifeforms were created" is a definition of


"Basic kinds of life forms happened to arise from nonliving matter" is a definition of


What are two differences between creation and evolution in terms of time?

evolution was billions of years ago, creation was 1,000 years ago. Evolution took one million years for each step, creation took 6 days