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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

1.What are the four types of vertebrate tissue?

Connective tissue
Muscle tissue
Nervous tissue

2.Define epithelium.

Membranous tissue of tightly connected cells from layers with relatively little ECM
Forms the outer layer and inner linings of organs and has various functions

3.What is the difference between the apical and basal layers of an epithelial cell?

Apical: upper side – faces lumen
Basal: lower side – attached to basal lamina (ECM)

4.What are the terms used to describe epithelium layer types and cell shapes? Define each term.

Simple: one layer
Stratified: multiple layers
Pseudostratified: one layer with nuclei at different levels
Transitional: multilayered, can expand/contract (urothelium only)
Squamous: flat, scale-like
Cuboidal: cubic, like squares
Columnar: rectangular
Ciliated vs. non-ciliated

5.What does the structure of epithelium indicate about the tissue?

Simple squamous: wide surface, thin layer, easy transmembrane mvmt across (filtration, osmosis, diffusion; blood vessel: gas exchange)
Simple columnar: absorption, protection (small intestine)
Stratified squamous: protective physical barrier (skin)
Ciliated, pseudostratified, columnar: filtering debris (trachea, fallopian tubes)

6.Describe the type and function of epithelium in the following: small intestine, blood vessel, skin, trachea

Small intestine: simple columnar (absorption, protection)
Blood vessel: simple, squamous (gas exchange)
Skin: stratified, squamous (physical, protective barrier)
Trachea: ciliated, pseudostratified, columnar (filtering debris)

7.What are the major cell types of the gut epithelium & what are their functions?

Absorptive cell: densely-packed microvilli (absorption and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes)
Goblet cell: secretes mucous (protective barrier)
Enteroendocrine cells: secrete serotonin and peptide hormones (regulate growth, proliferation, and digestive activities of gut & can influence other cells)
Paneth cell: role in innate immune system (secretes molecules that kill bacteria)

8.What type of cell junctions do the gut, tracheal epithelium, and skin have? Why is each type of junction important for each tissue?

Gut: tight junction (virtually impermeable layer – prevents infection)
Tracheal: tight junction (prevents dust/debris from entering)
Vascular: adjustable tight junction (allows fluid and gas exchange)
Epidermal: tight junctions (prevents entry of outside pathogens

9.What would happen if tracheal epithelium lost their cilia?

If tracheal epithelium were unciliated, the layer of mucus (created by the Goblet cells) carrying debris would not be moved out of the trachea

10.What type of cell junctions do blood vessels have? Why not tight?

Adjustable tight junctions: allow passage of fluid and gas
Oxygen and CO2 need to be able to diffuse between lungs and circulatory system

11.Is barrier protection the only function of the skin? Explain your answer.

The cornification of the skin also serves to provide structural integrity

12.Define connective tissue.

Tissue that supports, binds, or separates tissues or organs
Comprised of relatively few mesenchymal cells with abundant ECM
Cartilaginous, fatty, elastic, or hard (bone)

13.What is the most common connective tissue cell type?

Fibroblasts: dispersed in connective tissue through body
Serves to maintain structural integrity of many tissues

14.Is the fibroblast completely specialized (i.e., terminally differentiated)?

No, it can differentiate into other connective tissues cell types (bone, cartilage, fat, smooth muscle)
Can become terminally differentiated once it forms into a specialized cell type

15.What type of connective tissue does cartilage form? What is the function of chondrocytes within cartilage? Why is this function so critical? What is the function of cartilage?

Very dense connective tissue
Chondrocytes are the mature cells that make up the cellular matrix of the cartilage
Reduces friction between bones
Links bone to bone; support, movement
Facilitate fluid exchange through gelatinous layers of cartilage (necessary for healing injured cartilage)

16.What type of connective tissue does bone form? What is the function of bone?

Very dense connective tissue
Osteoblasts secrete matrix of bone; major cellular component of bone (develop from mesenchymal stem cells in bone periosteum and marrow)
Bone functions: provide internal support, protection, and organismal mobility

17.List the major cell types of bone along with their function and the cell type they are derived from.

Osteoblasts: secrete matrix of bone ; major component; develop from mesenchymal stem cells in bone periosteum and marrow
Osteocytes: maintain bone; develop from mesenchymal stem cells in bone periosteum and marrow
Osteoclasts: reabsorb bone tissue; derived from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow; dissolved bone
Osteoid: freshly formed layer of osteoblast

18.What would happen if the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts were disrupted? (i.e., What would happen to bone if there were too many osteoblasts or too many osteoclasts?)

Osteoblasts and osteoclasts have opposing functions, balancing each other out
Osteoblasts build bone and osteoclasts dissolve/absorb bone, and osteocytes regulate these functions
If more osteoblasts than osteoclasts, this would result in over-production of bone
If more osteoclasts than osteoblasts, this would result in a reduction in bone mass

19.What type of connective tissue does adipose form? What is the function of adipose? What cell type are adipocytes derived from?

Very loose connective tissue
Store very large amounts of triglycerides (fat) as a form of energy
Derived from immature fibroblast cells (mesenchymal stem cells)

20.Define muscle tissue. How is actin and myosin important to muscle tissue?

Contractile tissue composed of cells rich in filaments made of actin & myosin, which produce the motive force for contraction

21.Describe the 4 types of muscle cells.

Skeletal muscle: movements under voluntary control; highly elongated shape and striated (striped); orderly array of sarcomeres (contractile units)
Heart muscle: only found in heart walls; striated appearance, single nuclei (striated: has sarcomeres)
Smooth muscle: not striated (no sarcomeres); function varies from propelling food along gut to erecting hairs in response to cold or fear; involuntary movement
Myoepithelial cells: non-striated; lie in epithelia unlike all other muscle cells (derive from different tissue during development)

22.Define nervous tissue. What cells make-up nervous tissue? What is its function?

Main component of central nervous system and PNS (peripheral nervous system)
Made up of neurons (nerve cells) and neuroglia (non-neuronal cells that provide support for neuronal cells)
Functions: sensory input, control of muscles and glands, homeostasis, mental activity
Neurons have long axons (stem-like structures) that transmit electrical action potential signals that lead to the release of neurotransmitters at the nerve terminal

23.What is a nerve?

Enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons in the PNS surrounded by a layer of connective tissue

24.What is myelin? And what is its function?

Neurological cells wrapped around axons
Function: allows for rapid conduction of axon potentials along nerves by functioning as electrical insulation
Generated by neuroglial cells