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136 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

When did the study of Comn begin?

Ancient Greece, Aristotle 300 BC

When did the academic study of communication begin?


Who was the Grandmother of Interpersonal Comn?

Edna Rodgers

What is the National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking called today?

National Communication Association

What are the three models of communication

Linear, Interactive and Transactional

What is the most current model of Communication


Communication is bi-dimensional; what are the two dimensions

Content and Relational

What are the axioms of Communication

-comn is context bound

-comn involves ethical choices

-comn can be unintentional

-no one form of comn is a panacea

-comn is irreversible

-comn skills are learned

What does the Quanitative Perspective of Comn explain

# of people involved

What does the Qualitative Perspective of Comn explain

unique qualities of the other person are highlighted

Martin Buber's Model




What type of comn created interpersonal comn according to Buber


What is Hardwig's equivalent to i-thou

person qua person

what are first order realities?

the physically observable

what are second order realities?

attaching meaning to the physically observable

What are the steps in the Perception Process (in order)

selection, organization, interpretation, negotiation

Types of Schema (4)

Physical, interactive, internal, role

What are scripts?

guides to actions; there are scripts for all types of events

What is the Self Serving bias? and what step in perception does it fall under?

the tendency to judge one's self in the most generous terms while being more critical of others; interpretation

What is the Fundamental Attribution Error?

changing the way you explain things based on who you are talking to/about

What is the halo effect?

judging some one in a positive way based on one positive quality about them

What is the horn effect?

judging some one in a negative way based on one negative quality about them

What is perception checking?

a three part method for verifying the accuracy of interpretations including restating what happen; offering two possible interpretations and a request for confirmation

What is the pillow method?

a four step process used when people have different perspecitves

What are the four steps in the pillow method?

1. I'm right, you're wrong

2. I'm wrong, you're right

3. we're both wrong

4. the issue doesn't matter

What are the influence on perception?

physiological, psychological, cultural values, worldviews

What is the difference between high and low power distance

- Low power distance = equality

- High power distance= values individuality

What is the difference between masculine and feminine orientation

- masculine = achievement oriented (materialistic)

-feminine= nurturing relationship development

What are phonetics?

the way we produce sounds

What are syntactics?

how words are made into sentences, structure and punctuation

What are semantics?

the meaning for the words

What are morphemes and what are the two types?

the units of meaning

-free morphemes: can exist by themselves

-bound morphemes: cannot exist by themselves

what is the definition for pragmatics?

how the words are used

What is impression management

reflects how we want others to see us

what is altercasting?

how we use language to construct other people's identities

What are the 5 functions of nonverbal communication

repeat, accent, contradict, compliment and regulate

What is the most immediate channel of nonverbal communication?

facial expressions

What are chronemics?

the study of time and space used to convey emotions

What communication scholar is known for studying chronemics?

Edward Hall

What is the difference between polychronic and monochronic?

polychronic= looser interpretation of time and relationships are prioritized over schedules

monochronic= highly structured and schedule oriented

what is paralanguage?

the use of voice to communication nonverbally

what are the 5 factors of paralanguage?

rate, pitch, volume, pauses, inflection

what are kinesics?

the use of body movements to communicate using gestures and posture

what are haptics?

the use of touch to communication

what is body endowment?

attributes of one's body such as face symmetry

what is the baby face generalization

the people with a baby face are innocent and weak; causes high deliquency in men

What are some examples of body modification?

working out, tattoos, piercings, etc.

what is body adornment and what are some examples?

changes in everyday appearance such as make up and clothing

what is self concept?

the relatively stable set of perceptions for one's self; hard to change

what is self esteem?

judgements we make about ourselves

what is the presenting self?

the self we share with others; also known as public image and identity

what is perceived self?

the person we believe we are in moments of being open; may be different than the presenting self

what is reflected appraisal?

the way we thing and feel about ourselves based on the way we feel others are perceiving us

what is the looking glass self?

the people form their self concept based on looking at other people

What is the difference between the Pygmalion and the Golem effect?

-Pygmalion= you think something positive will happen so you unconsciously make it happen

-Golem= you place lower expectations on yourself and therefore have poorer performance

self fulfilling prophecy

a prediction that effects one's performance due to either positive or negative feedback

reference groups

people to compare one's self to

What is the difference between mindless and mindful listening

mindful listening involves attention and thoughtful responses while mindless involves automatic responses and little to no attention

What should you not do when offering support?

do not offer support if you will not follow through

What is pseudo-listening

fake listening

what is insulated listening

avoiding topics

what is ambush listening

carefully listening, but only to use it against someone in the future

what is the process of receiving and reacting to emotions?

-trigger event

- we make appraisals

-physiological responses

- reaction

what are framing rules?

how society believes we should react

what is the fallacy of approval

the belief that everyone should like you

what is the fallacy of should

the belief that you should do everything that everyone asks of you

what is the fallacy of overgeneralization

the belief that everything is a huge disaster

what is the fallacy of helplessness

you have no control over your life

what is the fallacy of causation

other people have control over your life

what is the fallacy of catastrophic expectations

murphy's law; everything that can go wrong will go wrong

what is communication climate?

the social tone of a relationship

what are the three aspects of confirming messages?


- Acknowledgement

- Endorsement

what is recognition

being aware of someone's physical presence

what is acknowledgment

lets the other person know you are aware of them in particular

what is endorsement

relating to someone's story or experience

What are impervious messages

absence of recognition

what are tengential messages

quick to respond, but quickly change the topic

what are incongruous messages

nonverbals contradict the verbals

How do you carefully offer criticism to someone?

-focus on a specific event

-engage in perspective checking

- criticize the action, not the person

- describe before you evaluate

-emphasize your perceptions

-encourage collaborative problem solving

according to Prather and Prather, what can interpersonal conflict do to a relationship?

it can cause the relationship to grow

and the people to become closer

what are some key ideas of conflict?

-conflict is natural

-conflict is culture bound

-conflict can be managed well or poorly

What are some destructive conflict styles?

-Cross complaining

-counter proposals


What does Prather & Prather believe to be destructive conflict styles?

1. bringing up the topic the other person is mad at

2. be as personal as possible when addressing the problem

3. concentrate on getting what you want

4. instead of listening, think of what to say next

5. correct the other person

6. mentioning things from the past

7. end with a disastrous comment

what is grace?

granting forgiveness or doing something in the other person's best interest when you don't have to

Much of the literature of relationships are ____ and ____

outdated; Eurocentric

What are the 5 stages of forming a romantic relationship based on Knapp and Vangelisti's model?

1. initiating

2. experiment

3. intensify

4. integrating

5. bonding

what is initiating?

beginning to relate with someone on a romantic level

what are the two aspects of the similarity principle and what do they mean?

-matching hypothesis: people initiate relationships with people of similar attractiveness to them

-mere exposure effect: people frequently cross paths

what is the complementary principle?

opposites attract when the complete eachother

During the experimental stage, what is phatic communication?

small talk

what is the goal of phatic communication?

to see if yo have anything in common

what happens during the intensifying stage?

-butterflies, happiness

-communicatively testing the other person to see if they are on the same level of commitment as you

what happens during the integrating stage

claim relational identity

what happens during the bonding stage?

use communication to display the relationship

what is social exchange theory?

explains social change and negotiation between parties; helps you understand other people's relationships

what is social penetration theory?

breadth and depth form a relationship

what is the difference between comparison level and comparison level of alternates?

comparison level: people look at their past and create pros and cons

comparison level of alternates: hypothetical future, shapes pros and cons

what are the 5 stages of coming apart in a relationship?

1. differentiating

2. circumscribing

3. stagnating

4. avoiding

5. terminating

what does is mean to differentiate a relationship?

re-establish individual identity rather than the couple as one

what does it mean to circumscribe?

a decrease in quality and quantity of the communication in a relationship

what is stagnating?

a lack of growth, relationship falls flat

what are the two aspects of avoidance

physical and symbolical

during the termination stage of a relationship, what is grave dressing?

burry the relationship, it is over

what is post relational communication like for an ex couple?

less friendly, more aquaintance like

what aspect do family relationships generally focus on?

qualitative aspect

what is a dual parent family

traditional family, opposite sex with children

what is a single parent family

one parent is absent due to death, divorce, etc.

what is a blended family?

step-parents blending of the two families OR adopted families, usually international or open adoptions

what is a dual earner family?

both parents work because they have to

dual career family

both parents work because they want to, no financial need

what is the difference between child-free and child-less

child free= voluntary, couple chooses not to have children

child-less= couple cannot have children, inability

what is a commuter family?

one parent lives away from the home for an extended period of time for other than relational reasons.

ex: job, prison, etc.

What is a discourse- dependent family?

families that people don't see as real, so the family spends much of their time explaining the dynamic

who is the Grandmother of family communication?


what is voluntary kin?

people who are not related by blood but are referred to as family

what is a narrative?

story telling; can be written, oral, etc.

what is the difference between a ritual and a tradition?

ritual: happens on a regular basis

tradition: has more of a history base in the family, usually rooted in the cultural background of the family

what is socialization in the family?

teaching children or new family members the values of the family

is intimacy displayed the same way in every family?

No, it can vary.

ex: saying "i love you" or giving a gift

what do rules do?

create a family identity

what is role enactment?

what it is like to be a child, mother, father, etc.

according to Fitzpatrick, what are the three types of families?

1. traditional

2. independents

3. separates

what are the aspects that make up a traditional family?


-resistant to change

- sex types roles

- high interdependence

- engage in conflict

- express emotion

what are the aspects that make up and independent family?


-reject sex typed roles

- don't stick to routine

-share and respect autonomy

- engage in conflict

what are the aspects that make up a separates family?

- like routine

- high autonomy & differentiated space

- avoid conflict

- reject sec typed roles

- express few emotions

what are the characteristics that define a friendship?

- voluntary

- involve a person qua person element

- often tied to culture (many culture are reluctant to make friends quickly)

- often tied to gender

What are the steps to developing friendships according to Rawlins?

1. role limited interactions

2. friendly relations

3. moving toward friendship

4. nascent friendships

5. stabilized friendships

6. waning friendships

where do most friendships being?

when we are playing other roles

ex: work, school

what happens during friendly relations?

small talk (phatic)

what is moving toward friendship equivalent to in forming romantic relationships


what happens during nascent friendship stage?

integrating; others see you as friends

what are some causes of a waning friendship?

- scarce resources

- personal change

- not adjusting to changing proxemics

- not coordinating communication styles

- wanting more than friendship

what are the different types of cross sex relationships?

- mutual romance

- strictly plutonic

- desires romance

- rejects romance

what happens when a cross sex relationship desires romance?

one person wants romance but doesn't want to pursue it

what happens when a cross sex relationship rejects romance?

one doesn't want a romance but believes the other person does

what is the Sapir-Whorf theory?

language affects our perception