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66 Cards in this Set

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Acid rain

Rain with pH less than 5

Active sites

Places on catalyst's surface where reactant molecules adsorb

Addition polymer

Polymer made from alkenes and alkene derivates

Annealing

Softening heat treatment method

Atactic polypropene

Isomer of polypropene with randomly orientated methyl groups

Bauxite

Principal aluminium ore

Blast furnace

Extract iron from its ores

Catalyst poisoning

Deactivation of catalyst by reaction with contaminants

Catalytic cracking

Cracking reaction using catalysts such as zeolite

Cholesteric liquid crystal

Molecules aligned along a main axis in layers, molecule orientation for each layer is slightly different, twists give rise to colour

Coke

Coal heated to drive off volatile components

Copolymer

Polymer formed from two different monomers

Cracking reaction

Larger hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller, less saturated hydrocarbons

Cryolite (Na3AlF6)

Substance added to alumina to lower the melting point of the electrolyte during aluminium production

Electrode

Conductive material, site of oxidation or reduction

Electrolyte

Substance that conducts electricity if molten or dissolved

Fossil fuels

Coal, oil and natural gas

Fractional distillation

Separation of mixture by heating and vaporization and subsequent cooling and condensation

Free radical

Reactive substance with unpaired electron

Fuel cell

Voltaic cell with at least one gaseous reactant supplied continuosly

Fullerenes

Allotropes of carbon

Haematite

iron ore, Fe2O3

Hall-Heroult cell (pot)

Cell used to extract aluminium from alumina

Hardenability

Measure of how well a material responds to heat treatment (using heat to soften or harden metal without melting it)

Intrinsic semiconductors

Pure crystals

Isotactic polypropene

Isomer of polypropene with methyl groups arranged on the same side of the assymmetrical carbon

Kevlar^TM

Liquid-crystal substance that can be woven into fibres; very tough

Lead-acid battery

Rechargeable cell used in cars

Liquid crystal

Substance that flows like a liquid but has some crystalline order like a solid

Lithium ion cell

Rechargeable cell containing lithium ions

Lyotropic liquid crystal

Liquid crystal that only exists in solution

Magnetite

Iron ore, Fe3O4

Mercury cell

Chlor-alkali cell in which mercury is used as an electrode

Nanotechnology

Field of technology dealing with devices in 1nm - 100nm size range

Nanotube

Allotrope of carbon with a closed cyllindrical structure

Nematic liquid crystal

Liquid crystal that has order in only one direction

Nickel-cadmium cell

Reachargeable cell used in laptops and mobile phones

NOx

Pollutant oxides from nitrogen

Particulates

Tiny, solid pollutant particles suspended in air

Perfluorocarbons

Organic compounds in which all hydrogens have been replaced by fluorine; potent greenhouse gases

Petrochemical

Chemical derived from petroleum

Petrochemical feedstocks

Liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons used to make intermediate or primary chemicals

Petroleum

Another name for crude oil

Pig iron

Impure iron produced in the blast furnace; contains about 4% carbon

Plasticizers

Chemicals added to make polymers softer and more flexible

Pot

Another name for Hall-Heroult cell

Primary cell

A non-rechargeable battery

Quantum effects

Effects that are only noticeable on the atomic scale, not in the macro world

Quenching

Fast cooling of heated metal by plunging it into a liquid

Refractory material

Substance able to withstand extremely high temperatures

Scanning tunelling microscope (STM)

Specialized microscope used to visualize and manipulate atoms

Secondary cell

Rechargeable battery

Siderite

Iron ore, FeCO3

Slag

Silica-rich waste from smelting process

Smectic liquid crystal

State in which molecules are arranged along the major axis and in layers

Smelting

Extraction of metals using heat, resulting in two layers

Steam cracking

Type of cracking which uses steam to split the molecules

Syndiotactic polypropene

Isomer of polypropene with methyl groups alternating on the either side of assymmetrical carbon

Tempering

Softening type of metal heat treatment

Thermal cracking

Type of cracking reaction in which heat is used to split molecules

Thermotropic liquid crystal

Substance that shows liquid-crystal properties in a pure state

Tuyere

Small holes at the bottom of blast furnace through which blasts of hot air are injected

Twisted nematic liquid crystal

Liquid crystal with layers twisted by regular increments, used in liquid-crystal displays

VOCs

Volatile organic compounds

Zeolites

Porous type of catalyst used in cracking reactions

Ziegler-Natta catalysts

Organometallic complexes used to make HDPE