4.2 Explain The Eva-Adam Process

Improved Essays
4.2 Resources CO2
Fig.1 depicts the principle of chemical energy transmission system.
Fig.2 explain the Eva-Adam process.

5. Thermodynamics of CO2 reforming of methane It is essential to understand the thermodynamic of CDRM represents as follow:
CH_4+CO_2 □(→) 2CO+〖2H〗_2 ∆H_298=247 KJ⁄(mol ) (1)
∆G^o=61770-67.32 T
This reaction above is highly endothermic which is favored by low pressure but, requires a higher temperature. A reverse water-gas shift reaction occurs as a side reaction as below
CO_2+H_2 □(→) CO+H_2 O ∆H_298=41 KJ⁄(mol ) (2)
∆G^o=-8545+7.84 T
Under conditions of stoichiometric CO2 reforming, carbon deposition
…show more content…
Catalysts
6.1. Methods of synthesis catalysts
NO. Name of author Journal, volume, year Name of method Briefly about his work
1 Ashcroft et at.[10]
Science,352, 1991 Vacuum 'incipient wetness' technique It is studied effect vacuum wetness method, and it is demonstrated that highly dispersed noble metal catalysts; thus leads to maintaining the efficiency for CO2 reforming of CH4 with suppressing carbon deposition.
2 Gadalla and Sommer[11]
J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 72, 1984. Coprecipitation
Method They investigated synthesized three catalysts with various compositions (NiO, MgO, and Al2O3).Those demonstrated high CH4 conversion in dry reforming reaction.
3 Chang et al[12]
Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal., 84, 1994. solid-state reaction They researched two methods to prove catalytic activity (solid-state reaction and incipient wetness method) the results show the KNiCa/ZSI catalyst was produced by incipient wetness method gave much less activity than the one prepared by solid-state. That could be melting effect of metallic precursor mixtures.

6.2. Metal activity
Table 2 illustrates some experimental results that related to reforming methane with CO2 over group VIII
…show more content…
It is found that the influence of support (metal oxides) on the efficiency of the catalyst as order TiO2 > Al2O3 > SiO2 for coupling CO2 with the CH4 conversion. On the other hand, the turnover frequency for CH4 conversion, the order of performance was TiO2 > Al2O3 > SiO2. It was deduced that the synergetic effect of metal oxides might be due to a direct activation of CH4 or CO2 by metal oxides and the difference of particle size of the metal.[16]

6.2.4. Carbon formation and activity
Deposition of carbon is assigned to from the CO2 molecular route, but a minimal amount of carbon deposited on catalyst surface is derived from the CH4 molecular direction.56,60 There are types of carbonaceous in which has different reactivity (α-C,β-C, and γ-C).
NO. Name of author Journal, volume, year Briefly about his work
1 Zhang and Verykios[17]
J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1995, It is studied effect found that carbon is originating from the CH4/CO2 over Ni/La2O3 catalyst. It is demonstrated that promoting the reaction via its interaction with a component migrated from the La2O3

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    These organic acids include oxalic acids, maleic acids, muconic acids and so on[18, 20, 21]. Because of the selective nature of ozone with regard to formed by-products, whereby acidic conditions produce a low TOC removal rate, direct ozonation rarely yields complete mineralization. [22]. Alternatively, strong alkaline conditions provide an important improvement in the oxidation power of ozonation process, which can be attributed to the prevalent indirect process that incorporates the production of OH radicals by ozone decomposition in aqueous solution, especially that which is catalyzed by OH− (i.e. higher pH) shown below in the following…

    • 860 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    The acidic phthalimide molecule gets deprotonated by a strong base. The strength of an acid depends on the stability of the conjugate base. The negative charge on the conjugate base of phthalimide is delocalised over three highly electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms. The combined electron-withdrawing resonance and inductive effect ensures that the negative charge on the nitrogen atom is effectively dispersed. Step 2: nucleophilic substitution In Section 3.6 Halogen Derivatives, it was mentioned that an alkyl halide can undergo nucleophilic substitution by heating with excess alcoholic ammonia to yield a primary amine.…

    • 1349 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The role of the temperature in the synthesis of 12-(phenyl)-9,9-dimethyl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[α]xanthenes-11-one was investigated in the presence of tartaric acid as the catalyst. Best results were obtained at 70 °C in the presence of 15 mol % of catalyst (Table3, entry 4). After the optimization of the reaction conditions and to show the generality of the method we used the optimized conditions for the synthesis of different types of 12-aryl-tetrahydrobenzo[α]xanthene-11-ones by using of β-naphthol (4, 1.0 mmol), aromatic aldehydes derivatives (5, 1.0 mmol) and dimedone (6, 1.0 mmol). The reaction is fairly general, clean, rapid, and efficient. The experimental procedure is very simple…

    • 1155 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Al, Alloy 1 And Elece

    • 1504 Words
    • 7 Pages

    This oxide film is Al2O3 and Al(OH)3, in neutral solution, based on Pourbaix diagram [20]. The alloy 1 presents OCP value of about -1.30 V whereas that of Alloy 2 was -1.44 V, which are more negative than that of Al in the same medium. The presence of tin and gallium in aluminum matrix as alloying elements increases the adsorption of Cl- ions at the values of negative potential which leads to the alloy dissolution [10]. The surface morphologies of Al, Alloy 1 and Alloy 2 after immersion in 2 M NaCl solution for 1 h were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Fig. 3).…

    • 1504 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    XRD Analysis Of Cumnox

    • 1054 Words
    • 5 Pages

    The crystallite size of the catalyst was 5.265 nm. After XRD analysis we can confirm that the crystalline size of CuMnRC1 has lower than the CuMnRC2 and CuMnRC3 catalyst so that it performs better result for CO oxidation at a lower temperature. Knowing width of XRD peak and Scherrer Eq., the calculated nano-crystalline of CuMnRC1, CuMnRC2 and CuMnAgRC3 catalyst is presented in Table 4. Table 4: XRD analysis of CuMnRC catalysts…

    • 1054 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Cu50ox Synthesis Essay

    • 1265 Words
    • 6 Pages

    3.4 The possible catalytic mechanism Based on previous research and the DRIFT results, the N2O decomposition over Cs-doped Cu50Ce50Ox should undergo the following mechanism: N2O reversibly deposits on the active Cu+ sites (Eq. 1), then the activated N-O bond breaks, releasing N2 and oxidizing the Cu+ to Cu2+(Eq.2). After that, the Cu2+ was reduced by Ce3+, the Cu+ was regenerated and forming Ce-O(Eq.3), at last Ce-O bonds broke to form O2(Eq.4) as shown in Fig.13, just like the mechanism suggested over Cu/CeO2 and Ru/CeO2 catalyst[16, 36]: Cu+ + N2O ↔ Cu+ - ONN (Eq.…

    • 1265 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Figure 3: Two metal ions catalysis mechanism of E. coli alkaline phosphatase (9). Zn(II) ions and essential amino acids are shown while Mg(II) ion is not displayed. Both Zn(II) ions seem to serve two primary functions. Zn1 facilitates the leaving of an alcohol group in the first step of the reaction while Zn2 activates Ser102 residue to induce a nucleophilic attack. Despite this difference, both ions stabilize the negative charges of phosphate in the active site.…

    • 2173 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    The initiation temperature of this endothermic reaction with conventional micron sized SiC powder is usually carried out at relatively high temperature (500 ◦C or 600◦C) [22, 23]. The low temperature of 252.5 ◦C observed in the present study is attributed to application of hot extrusion. The die pressure of extrusion enhanced the overall kinetic conditions and reaction rate of the in-situ reaction process at low temperature. Representative SEM micrographs of the composite with 3wt. % C prepared by compact and hot extrusion held at 500 ◦C are illustrated in Fig.…

    • 1788 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    DISCUSSION There are three chemical properties will be discussed which are combustion, reaction with bromine and reaction with potassium permanganate. Combustion was used to test the unsaturation of hydrocarbon. The degree of unsaturation refers to the number of the rings and / or multiple bonds present in the hydrocarbon molecule (McMurry, 2015). Hexane was a saturated hydrocarbon, it completely combusted and emitted carbon dioxide plus water. Cyclohexene was an unsaturated hydrocarbon, it undergoes incomplete combustion (Clark, 2003) which showed the great intensity of light compared to hexane due to the higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen in cyclohexene.…

    • 909 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Redox Catalyst Essay

    • 991 Words
    • 4 Pages

    The bond between carbon dioxide and the bottom of catalyst is weaken and release carbon dioxide. The free oxygen will combine with unburned hydrocarbon to form water and carbon dioxide. When the exhaust is heated up, the catalysis reaction can occur more easily. Unleaded fuel is used in catalytic converter because the lead in conventional fuel "poisons" the catalyst and prevents it from taking up the pollutants in exhaust…

    • 991 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays