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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are four major functions of respiratory system?
1.maintenance of normal arterial blood gas:
PaO2 = 98-100mmHg
PaCO2 = 40mmHg
2. removal of metabolic waste
- exhale CO2
3. Phonation - air flow causes vibration of vocal chords
4. Nonrespiratory Functions - defense against inhaled particles, removal of metabolic substances from blood such as, addition of metabolites to arterial blood, trap and dissolve small blood clots
What are the general steps of respiration?
1. Ventilation - mechanical movement of air between atmosphere and lung alveoli
2. Gas Diffusion - exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveolar air and the blood perfusing the lung capillaries
3. transport of blood gases in pulmonary and systemic circulation; diffusion of gases between systemic capillaries and respiring cells
4.cellular respiration - Utilization of oxygen as the final electron acceptor in the production of ATP within the mitochondria
What are overall symptoms of pulmonary disease?
Decrease in PaO2 - hypoxia
Increase in PaCO2 - hpercarbia
respiratory acidosis - ECF becomes acidic
What is respiratory acidosis?
Decreased ability to expire CO2
What determines O2 delivery to cells?
Pa O2, Hgb.O2 and O2 diffusion
Cardiac output and blood flow
What happens at the end of a normal relaxed exhale?
Opposing elastic forces of chest wall expansion cause longs to recoil and creates a negative subatmospheric pressure of -4mmHg
Where is conducting zone of respiratory system? What is the function of this area?
Mouth/nose -> end of terminal bronchioles

air flow, phonation, warm, saturation with water, traps foreign particles
What is respiratory zone and the function of it?
respiratory bronchi alveolar ducts and alveoli, gas exchange by diffusion
What is function of smooth muscle in respiratory system and where is it?
It lines airways from trachea to respiratory bronchi. Contraction or relaxation changes radius of airways therefore airway resistance
What causes airway constriction?
Parasympathetic, Eicosanoids, Histamine
What causes airway dilation?
Sympathetic, eicosanoids, transpulmonary pressure
What does caritlage do in respiratory system?
Trachea and bronchi have cartilage to maintain cylindrical structure
What is the function of cilia?
They are found on epithelial surfaces of airways down to end of respiratory bronchi, constantly beat directionally toward trachea
What do glandular cells do?
They line the epithelium and secrete mucus
What do epithelial cells do?
secrete watery substance that that allows the mucus to freely floa
What causes cystic fibrosis?
A genetic defect in chloride channels to secrete watery fluid that allows mucous to freely float
What do macrophages and IgA do?
Provide defense against inhaled foreign substances
What are pneumocytes?
Alveolar cells
What are Type 1 pneumocytes?
elongated, cover large surface are
What are Type 2 pneumocytes?
round, most numerous, produce surfactant, regenerative capacity to become Type 1 or Type 2 pneumocyte
What is surfactant?
Mixture of phospholipid and protein that form a monolayer between interface of air and water in alveoli. It lowers surface tension of air water interface and increase compliance of lung. Work of breathing reduced when surfactant present.
When is surfactant produced during fetus?
Late third triemester.
What happens if baby is born before surfactant produced?
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
What is atmosphere pressure?
Pressure surrounding body, mouth and nose
What is alveolar pressure?
Pressure of air in alveolus
What is intrapleural pressure?
ALSO called intrathoracic pressure, Pip
What is transpulmonary pressure?
Pressure that acts to expand lungs. Palv - Pip. This ability depends on compliance of lungs
How can we calculate Lung compliance?
Compliance lung = Change in Volume / change in Transpulmonary Pressure
What determines lung compliance?
Elastic connective tissue properties of lung and surface tension at air water interface
What is pressure that determines movement of air in and out of lungs?
Patm - Palv
What is Boyle's Law?
The pressure of a fixed amount of gas is inversely related to the volume of the container
What is volume of conducting zone?
What is in daily inhaler for people with asthma?
Corticosteroid to reduce inflammation
What is in rescue inhaler for people with asthma?
SNS mimetics. Beta 2 agonist
What helps stimulate surfactant?
lymphatic vessels
What is the formula for pressure to keep lungs from collapsing?
P = 2T/r
T is tension and r is radius
How is diaphragm innervated for ventilation?
the diaphragm is innervated by alpha motor neurons arising from Cervical Spinal Cord segments. The major contribution of innervation comes from C4. Contraction of diaphragm causes change in volume of thorax.
What happens after diaphragm innervated and thorax expands in ventilation for inspiration?
Decrease in Pip and Palv -> increase in Ptp -> lungs expand
What are accessory muscles of inspiration?
External intercostal muscles and anterior neck msucles
What are accessory muscles of expiration?
Internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles
What happens during exhalation?
At resting, Palv>Patm; no motor command no AP required; Diaphragm relaxes -> decreases volume of thorax -> Pip returns to normal -> Ptp decreases -> lungs recoil
What is total lung capacity proportional to? What is it in males and females?
Body size, 6000mL males and 4200 mL females
What is residual volume ? What is the volume for males and females
Volume of air trapped in lungs and can't exhale with increasing age: .9-1.4 L males and .8 - 1.2 L for females
What is vital capacity for females and males?
4-5 L males and 3-4 L for females
What does Total Lung Capacity include?
includes residual volume or volume of air that is trapped in lungs and cannot be exhaled
What is vital capacity?
It is the air that can move in and out of lungs so Total Lung Capacity - Residual Volume
What is Tidal Volume?
Amount of air we normally breathe in and out on average ~ 500mL but proportional to body size
When will tidal volume increase?
When exerting energy
_______ + __________ = vital capacity
Expiratory and Inspiratory tidal volumes
What is forced vital capacity?
rate at which you can force/exhale vital capacity
What is FEV1?
Forced expiratory volume in one second , volume of vital capacity that can be exhaled in one second
What does how fast one can force the vital capcity out indicate?
resistance to air flow
What will doctors look at for patients with lung disease?
What is minute ventilation?
In one minute, how much more in or out = volume/time
Vmin = Tidal volume * Respiratory Rate
What is alveolar ventilation?
Of air we move in or out, how much gets to alveoli for gas diffusion
What is dead space volume?
Amount of air trapped in conducting zone about 150 mL
How do we calculate Alveolar ventilation or Valv?
(TV - dead space conducting zone) * RR
How do you calculate maximum voluntary ventilation?
As subject to take max deep breaths as fast as they can for fifteen seconds. and multiply that times four to get per minute.
What does average person without obstructive lung disease have for percentage of FEV1/FVC?
What do you see with someone who has obstructive lung disease ?
Decrease total vital capacity, Decreased FEV1, and decreased FEV1/FVC
What do you see in someone with restrictive lung disease ?
Decreased total vital capacity, decreased FEV1, but somewhat normal FEV1/FVC