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156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Without the lymphatic system, our ________ system would stop working and our _________ system would become impaired

Two semi independent parts of the lymphatic system
1) lymphatic vessels
2) lymphoid tissues and organs
__________ transport back to the blood any fluids that have escaped from the blood vascular system.
lymphatic vessels
__________ house phagocytic cells and lymphocytes

which play essential roles in the body’s defense mechanisms and its resistance to disease
lymphoid organs
The fluid that remains behind in the tissue spaces ----becomes part of the
interstitial fluid
The problem of circulatory dynamics is resolved by the ______________
lymphatic vessels (aka lymphatics)
an elaborate system of drainage vessels that collect the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the blood stream.
Once interstitial fluid enters the lymphatics (vessels), it is called ________
Lymphatic vessels form a one way system in which LYMPH only flows towards the ________
Lymphatic capillaries are widespread but absent from the (4)
the bones
bone marrow
the entire central nervous system
The central nervous system’s excess fluid all drains into the ____________
cerebrospinal fluid
Lymphatic capillaries, most important property
____________ forming the walls of lymphatic capillaries are not tightly joined instead the edges of adjacent cells overlap each other loosely, forming ________________
Endothelial cells

easily opened, flaplike minivalves
______________ anchor the endothelial cells to surrounding structures so that any increase in ____________ volume opens the minivalves (rather than causing the lymphatic capillaries to collapse)
Collagen filaments

interstitial fluid
When fluid pressure in the interstitial space is greater than the pressure in the lymphatic capillary, the minivalve flaps are _______
When the pressure is greater inside the capillary, the endothelial minivalve flaps are_______
When minvalves of capillaries are closed, it is
preventing lymph from leaking back out to the interstitial space, and it is instead pushed along the vessel
Proteins in the interstitial space are unable to enter the ________ capillaries, but they enter ________ capillaries very easily

When tissues are_________, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of even larger particles such as __________, _________, __________

cell debris, pathogens, cancer cells
The lymphatics take the large debris a route towards the _________ to be monitored and cleansed of debris
lymph nodes
fatty lymph delivered to the blood via the lymphatic stream
flow route of lymph
larger, thicker walled channels
collecting vessels
Highly specialized lymphatic capillaries that play essential role in absorbing digested fats from the intestine
Lacteals are present in _____
villi of the intestinal mucosa
Lacteals cause lymph draining from the digestive visea to be a _____ rather than clear because of its role in absorption of digested fats
milky white
Lymphatic vessels of the skin travel along the
superficial veins
Deep lymphatic vessels of the trunk and digestive viscera travel with the _______
deep arteries
The exact anatomical distribution of the ____________ varies greatly between individuals even more than it does for veins
lymphatic vessels
Formed by the union of the largest collective vessels
lymphatic trunks
These drain fairly large areas of the body
lymphatic trunks
Name the major trunks (5)
1) lumbar trunk
2) bronchomediastinal trunk
3) subclavian trunk
4) jugular trunk
5) single intestinal trunk
Lymph is delivered to one of the two large ducts in the _______ region
thoracic region
drains lymph from the right upper arm and the right side of the head and thorax
right lymphatic duct
_______ receives lymph from the rest of the body
(larger) thoracic duct
enlarged sac that collects lymph from the two large LUMBAR trunks and from the INTESTINAL trunk
cisterna chyli
that drains the digestive organs
that drain the lower limbs
lumbar trunks (two large ones)
cisterna chyli collects lymph from the ____ Trunks and the ______ trunk
runs superiorly, receives lymphatic drainage from the left side of the thorax, left upper limb, and the head region.
thoracic duct
Thoraic duct receives lymphatic drainage from the _______, _______, _______
left side of the thorax
left upper limb
the head region
empties its lymph into the venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein on its own side of the body.
terminal duct
Terminal duct empties its lymph into the venous circulation at the junction of ______ vein and ______ vein on its own side of the body
subclavian vein
jugular vein
Lymphatic system lacks an organ that acts as a ____
Under normal conditions lymphatic vessels are
low-pressure conduits
Lymphatics are usually bundled _____________________ along with blood vessels
together in connective tissue sheaths
_________ in the walls of the lymphatic trunks and thoracic duct contracts rhythmically helping to the pump the lymph along
smooth muscle
lymph transport is ____ and _____
3 functions of the lymphatic vessels
1)return excess fluid to the blood stream
2)return leaked proteins to the blood
3)carry absorbed fat from the intestine to the blood
Another name for phagocytes
Infectious microorganisms that manage to penetrate the bodys epithelial barrier quickly invade
the loose connective tissues
Invaders are fought off by inflammatory response by ________ (macrophages) and ______
Lymophocytes arise in the _____ bone marrow
The two main varieties of immucompetetnt cells of the lymphocytes
1) t cells
2) b cells
T cells role
directly attack and destroy infected cells
Produce plasma cells, daughter cells that secrete antibodies into the blood
B cells
immobilize antigens until they can be destroyed by phagocytes or other means
are anything the body considers as foreign, such as bacteria and their toxins, viruses, mismatched RBCs, or cancer cells
help activiate t cells
spiny looking cells that capture antigens and bring them back to the lymph nodes.
dendritic cells
fibroblast cells that produce reticular fiber stroma
reticular cells
What is the loose connective tissue that lymphoid tissue is largely composed of called
reticular connective tissue
Reticular connective tissue dominates all organs except the
_______ live on the fibers of the reticular network
_______ live in the spaces of the reticular network
This kind of lymphoid tissue lacks a capsule, found in every body organ, few scattered reticular tissue elements
diffuse lymphatic tissue
This kind of lymphoid tissue lacks a capsule but follicles are solid, spherical bodies consisting of tightly packed reticular elements and cells. Also has germinal centers
lymphoid follicles (nodules)
What type of cells predominate in germinal centers?
follicular dendritic cells and
B cells
What causes germinal centers to enlarge?
when B cells are dividing rapidly and producing plasma cells
These lymphoid follicles (nodules) are forming the ___________
larger lymphoid organs such as the lymph nodes
What is forming the larger lymphoid organs such as the lymph nodes
lymphoid follicles
Isolated aggregations of lymphoid follicles occur in the intestinal wall as ________ and in the _________
peyers patches
and in the appendix
Principle lymphoid organs in the body
lymph nodes
As lymph is transported back to the blood stream (flows towards the heart), _________ filter the lymph
lymph nodes
There are hundreds of these organs (________)
lymph nodes
Why are lymph nodes not easily seen?
they are embedded in connective tissue
Lymph nodes cluster along the _____________ of the body
lymphatic vessels
Large clusters of lymph nodes occur near the body surface in the _______ and _______ regions
inguinal, axillary and cervical regions
The places where the lymphatic collective vessels converge to form trunks
cervical regions
Function #2 of lymph nodes: They help activate the immune system by ___________ that are strategically located in the lymph nodes that monitor the lymphatic stream for the presence for antigens and mount an attack against them.
Lymph nodes Function #1: They act as lymph filters by_________ in the nodes remove and destroy antigens
macrophages (phagocytes)
shape of lymph node
bean shaped
less than 2.5 cm (1 inch) in length
varies in shape and size
Each lymph node is surrounded by a ______________
dense fibrous capsule
Are connective tissue strands that extend inward to divide the node into a number of compartments
Internal framework of reticular fibers Supports the everchanging population of lymphocytes
Lymph nodes has two distinct regions _____ and _____
cortex and medulla
The __________ of the lymph node contains densely packed follicles many with germinal centers heavy with dividing B cells (B lymphocytes)
superifical side of the cortex
_______ nearly encapsulate follicles, the deeper part of the cortex, primarily houses T cells in transit
Dendritic cells
T cells (T lymphocytes) circulate continuously between the _________, lymph nodes, and the ______ performing their surveillance role
lymph nodes
are thin inward extensions from the cortical lymphoid tissue, contain both types of lymphocytes plus plasma cells and they define the medulla
medullary cords
This contains lymphocytes and plasma cells

This contains only B cells

Large lymph capillaries spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers, throughout the lymph node
lymph sinuses
The lymph sinuses have _________ where macrophages lie on these reticular fibers and await for lymph to flow through to phagocytize foreign matter.
reticular fibers
Circulation in the lymph nodes

1) lymph enters the _______ side of the lymph node
It enters through a number of _____________
2) moves through a large baglike sinus _______________
3) _________
4) ___________
5) moves through the sinuses and exits the node at its ________ through the _____________ vessels
1) convex side of the lymph node through afferent lymphatic vessels
2) subscapular sinus
3) cortex
4) medulla
5) hillium through the efferent lymphatic vessels
*out the concave side of the lymph node
Indented region on the concave side of the lymph node
There are fewer _______ vessels draining the node than _______ vessels
fewer efferent vessels than afferent vessels
Lymph passes through several _______ before it is completely cleansed
lymph nodes
When lymph nodes are overwhelemed by agents they are trying to destroy and large numbers of bacteria are trapped in the nodes, the nodes become ______

condition called
inflammed, swollen, tender to touch

condition called swollen glands
Infected lymph nodes are called
_______ are the most obvious symtom of bubonic plague "black death" that killed much of europes populaiton in the late middle ages
These can become secondary cancer sites
lymph nodes
What distinguishes infected lymph nodes from cancerous lymph nodes?
cancerous lymph nodes are swollen but not painful

infected lymph nodes are swollen and painful
Name lymphoid organs (6)
1) lymph nodes
2) spleen
3) thymus
4) tonsils
5) peyers patches of the intestine
6) bits of lymphatic tissue scattered in conecctive tissue
All of the lymphoid organs are composed of _________ tissue except the thymus
reticular connective tissue
Which lymphoid organs filter the lymph
lymph nodes
All the lymphoid organs lack ________ lymphatics except the lymph nodes
afferent lymphatics

instead they all have efferent lymphatics that draining them to the lymph nodes
Largest lymphoid organ
Where is the spleen located? (3)
left side of the abdominal cavity
curls around the anterior aspect of to the stomach
beneath the diaphragm
The spleen is served by the ________
large splenic artery and vein
This organ stores the breakdown products of red blood cells for later reuse
It is the site of erythrocyte production in the fetus ( a capability that normally ceases after birth)
this organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood, it has blood cleansing functions
This organ It stores blood platelets
Is the spleen surrounded by a fibrous capsule?
(just like the lymph nodes are!)
Does the spleen have trabecule that extend inward and contain both lymphocytes and macrophages?
This lymphoid organ,spleen, contains large numbers of _________
areas composed mostly of lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers
______ pulp clusters or forms “cuffs” around the central arteries, small branches of the splenic artery, in the organ
white pulp in the spleen
small branches of the ________ in the organ and forms what appear to be islands in a sea
white pulp

splenic artery
What kind of pulp is all remaining splenic tissue, the venous sinuses, and the splenic cords
red pulp
Red pulp is composed of (3)
-splenic tissue
-venous sinuses
-splenic cords
regions of reticular connective tissue exceptionally rich in macrophages, in red pulp
splenic cords
Red pulp is most concerned with?
White pulp is most concerned with?
Red pulp is most concerned with disposing of worn out red blood cells and bloodborne pathogens

White pulp is involved with the immune functions of the spleen
What type of pulp in the spleen is areas composed mostly of lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers
white pulp
Red Pulp = rich in macrophages
White pulp = rich in
Why is white pulp sometimes appear darker?
because of darkly staining nuclei of the densely packed lymphocytes
A procedure that removes the spleen is called
The spleens capsule is very thin, a direct blow can cause what
the spleen the repture and blood to pour into the peritoneal cavity
If the spleen is removed the _____ and _______ take over most of its functions
liver and bone marrow
Where is the thymus found? (3)
- inferior neck to the superior thorax
- overlies the heart
-deep to the sternum
Thymus secretes what two hormones
1) thymopoietin
2) thymosins
In newborns, _____ continues to increase in size during the first year when it is highly active.

After puperty it starts to _____ gradually and by old age is replaced by _______

atrophy, fibrous and fatty tissue
The "flowerets" of the thymus _________ each containing an outer cortex and inner medulla
thymic lobules
Most thymic cells are

(in thymus)
Concentric whorls of keratinized epithelial cells, sites of T destruction
thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles
Thymus lacks B cells, it has no
Simplest lymphoid organs
Forms a ring of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the _______, where they appear as swellings of the mucosa

Paired, are located on either side of the posterior end of the oral cavity

They are the largest of the tonsils

Ones that are the most infected
Palatine tonsils
Where are the palatine tonsils (largest tonsils) located?
located on either side of the posterior end of the oral cavity
The type of tonsil that is most infected
palatine tonsil
lumpy collection of lymphoid follicles at the base of the tongue (tonsil)
lingual tonsil
Type of tonsil that referred to as adenoids if enlarged
phayngeal tonsil
Where is the phayngeal tonsil located?
posterior wall of the nasopharynx
Phayngeal tonsil are called what when enlarged
Type of tonsil that they gather and remove many of the pathogens entering the pharynx in food or in inhaled air
tubal tonsils
Where are tubal tonsils located?
surround the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx
Do tonsils have a dense fibrous capsule?
no they are not fully encapsulated
Tonsils are not fully encapsulated and the epithelium overlying them invaginates deep into their interior forming ____________
blind ended tonsillar crypts
Part of tonsils that traps bacteria and the bacteria works their way through the mucosal epithelium into the lymphoid tissue, where most are destroyed
blind ended tonsillar crypts
Blind ended tonsillar crypts works bacteria through the _________ into the lymphoid tissue (where bacteria is mostly destroyed)
mucosal epithelium to the lymphoid tissue
Are large isolated clusters of LYMPHOID FOLLICLES, located in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestine
peyers patches
Where are peyers patches located?
distal portion of the SMALL intestine
Tubular offshoot of the first part of the large intestine
1) to destroy bacteria (which are present in large numbers in the intestine)
2) prevents pathogens from breaching the intestinal wall
3) to generate many “memory” lymphocytes for long term immunity
___________, __________, and _________ , ___________ are all located in the digestive tract
peyers patches
lymphoid follicles in the walls of the bronchi
Small collection of lymphoid tissue, protects passages that are open to the exterior from the never ending onslaughts of foreign matter entering them
mucosa associated lymphatic tissue
MALT (mucosa associated lymphatic tissue) are in the
mucosa of genitorurinary organs