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79 Cards in this Set

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Blood: components
1.plasma-fluid portion
2.cells & platelets
Blood Plasma
1.made of 92% H2O
2.Fxn: suspension & transport medium carrying dissolved substances
Blood Plasma: Soluble Constituents
1.plasma proteins
2.non-protein nitrogenous sub (NPN)
3.organic nutrients
Plasma Proteins: Types
(7% of plasma)
1.serum albumin &
2.serum golbulins
*make up 96% plasma proteins
*related to blood clotting& assoc chem rxns; produced in liver
serum albumin:
60% of pr
smallest & present in highest quantity
serum globulins:
36% of pr
subdivived into categories:
1.alpha-1 globulins
2.alpha-2 globulins
3.gamma globulins
Plasma Proteins: Fxn
1.maintenance of osmotic balance b/w bld plasma & all tiss fluids
2.regulation of blood pH
3.transport of lipid substances in blood plasma
4. protection against infection
5.blood clotting
osmotic balance maintenance:
osmotic balance maintenance: forces involved
1.hydrostatic pressure of blood
2.colloid osmotic pressure of blood
hydrostatic pressure of blood
BP inside capillaries; outward directed force on walls of caps; hi @ arterial end of cap & lo @ venule end of cap; force that forces blood thru caps; force involved w/ starlings- causes fluids from caps to enter tiss spaces
colloid osmotic pressure of blood
involved proteins present in blood plasma; loss of fluid thru caps to tiss space leads to inc conc of pr in plasma -> inc colloid osmotic press; lo @ arterial end of cap & hi @ venule end of cap (causes fluids to re-enter by osmosis & diffusion)
osmotic balance maintenance: mechanism for fluid exchange
1.influence of hydrostatic pressure
2.influence of colloid osmotic pressure
influence of hydrostatic pressure:
causes filtration of H2O & small molecules from blood plasma->tissue spaces
influence of colloid osmotic pressure:
pull fluid-H2O & small molecules from tissue spaces back to capillaries; caused by protein albumin & others in lower conc
Regulation of Blood pH:
proteins react w/ H+, reducing H+ content in blood, maintaining pH of 7.4
Transport of lipid sub in blood plasma:
3 plasma-protein carriers:
alpha-1, alpha-2, beta globulins; w/ fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, steroid hormones, & fat soluble vit's A,D,E,K attached to plasma pr for transportation
Protection a/g Infection:
ptrect a/g infective microorganisms, antigenic chemicals, toxins;
plasma proteins involved w/ increasing destruction:
gamma globulins, aka antibodies
Blood Clotting/Coagulation:
pr: prothrombin, fibrinogen & others all made by liver; change blood in soluble state (fluid) -> gel (semisolid)
Non-protein Nitrogenous Substances:
waste products:
1.urea- result from pr catabolism
2.uric acid-result from nucleic acid catabolism
3.creatine-result from skeletal musc activity
*all eliminated thru urine
Organic Nutrients:
2.amino acids
3.lipids (fa & triglycerides)
4.vitamins (H2O & lipid soluble sub)
come from endocrine glands & blood transports them thru the body to some site of action
1.cations: (+) Na,K,Ca,MG
2.anions: (-) Cl,HCO3,PO4,SO4
1.O2- 20%; transported from lungs to tiss
2.CO2- 1%; transported from tiss to lungs
3.N2- 79%; the air we breathe
Blood: Formed Elements:
RBC erythrocytes
WBC leukocytes
platelets: parts of cells, thrombocytes
Formed Elements: Hematocrit
packed cell volume; start w/ whole blood sample->centrifuge & see seperation of formed elements & plasma
whole blood sample:
45% hematocrit (variances 43-45%)
55% plasma
RBC: site of formation in adults
red bone marrow; including cranial bones, centra of vertebrae, sternum, ribs, epiphysis of humerus & femur, pelvic bone
RBC: control of prod in RBM
linked to O2 content in blood: Hypoxia- O2 levels low detected by kidneys & kidneys produce erythropoietin, goes to RBM & causes an inc of RBC prod
RBC: number in adult circulation
4.5-5 million/mm3 males
4-4.5 million/mm3 females
RBC: structure
biconcave disc (Depressions @ both sides; no nuclei; no organelles; ultimately a bag that contains chemicals
2.contains chem: hemoglobin, carbonic anhydrase, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate
carbonic anhydrase & 2,3-DPG involved w/:
unloading O2 in tiss
hemoglobin invlved w/:
carrying O2 in RBC's
RBC: Fxns
1.Hb structure
2.transport of respiratory gases
3.partial regulation of blood pH
Hb structure:
4 polypeptide chains (2alpha & 2beta chains)
4 hemes (1 attached to ea polypeptide)
4 iron atoms attached to ea heme (part that carries O2)
transport respiratory gases:
Hb transports O2 from lungs to body tiss; CO2 can attach to Hb & carry CO2 back from tiss to lungs
partial regulation of blood pH:
measure of acidity; Hb reacts w/ free H+ ions
1. Hb+ H+ ->HbH, therefore acidity H+ reduced/eliminated
cell-mediated immunity:
protection a/g some bacteria, fungi, virus-infected cells, organ & tissue transplants, cancer cells
RBC: life span
120 days & then usually eliminated in the spleen
Life Span: Neutrophils
6 hours to a few days (active protection)
RBC: Anemia
decrease in O2 carrying capacity of blood; causes:
1.lower than normal RBC count
2.lower than normal Hb per RBC
3.presence of abnorm Hb: sickle cell disease
sickle cell disease
during extreme cold conditions, Hb precipitates from inside RBCs & become round, sickle shaped
Life Span: Monocytes
RBC: Polycythemia
too many RBC in circulation/higher than normal
1.primary polycythemia/polycythemia vera
2.secondary polycythemia/physiological polycythemia
Blood: blood groups
poly. vera:
tumor condition in RBM; not malignant & not all cells mature; too many RBCs increase viscosity of blood->hi BP
Life Span: Lymphocytes
hours to years; memory T & B lymphocytes
physiol. poly:
can happen to anyone; sea level->8000'->erythropoietin-?inc RBC count; return to sea level & RBC count returns to normal
Leukocytes/WBC: Structure
some have granules in cytoplasm-granulocytes & nuclei can have 2/> lobes;
others have no granules in cytoplasm-agranulocytes & nuclei are round to oval in shape
Blood Groups: determining factors
1.glycoproteins/agglutinogens: chem found on outer surface of RBC; capacity to react w/:
2.agglutinins: proteins norm present in blood plama
Leukocytes/WBC: Types
Number in adult circulation:
1.neutrophils (most numerous)
Blood Groups: characteristics
O- a b
A- b
B- a
AB- none
increased WBC count above normal, typically associated w/ active infections in body
Leukocytes/WBC: site of original formation & following maturation
stem cells: immature, general cell that matures to more specific cells
chem rxn;
A agglutinogen reacts w/ a-agglutinin ->clumping RBCs
B agglutinogen reacts w/ b-agglutinin ->clumping RBCs
lymphoid organs include:
lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, peyers patches in sm int.
malignancy; WBC count 50,000/mm3 & higher abnormal cell count
Leukocytes/WBC: Fxn
related to protection a/g infectious agents, toxins, & autigenic chemicals
1.non-specific immunity: primarily directed a/g bacteria & viruses
blood tranfusions:
normally, transfuse indiv w/ normal blood types (Aw/A, Bw/B)
*rule: when donor gives to recipient: donors RBCs must not be agglutinated by recipients agglutinins
ex: wound->bac enters tissues:
neutrophil (1st WBC attracted to wound)->ambeoid mvmt: diapedisis to wound site or phagocytosis->supported by 2nd WBC attracted to wound: monocytes->enters tissues->macrophages->ambeoid mvmt or phagocytosis
WBC count lower than normal indicating an infection that has not been treated or one that has not responded to treatment
ambeoid mvmt:
move on own through capillaries walls
Rh factor or D-antigen:
if possess D antigen on RBC-> Rh+ (85%)
if dont possess D antigen on RBC-> Rh- (15%)
*in transufsions, always give + to + and - to -
*Rh+ to Rh- will produce antibodies a/g Rh+/agglutination
Formed Elements: Thrombocytes
problems w/ pregnancy:
Rh+M & Rh-F= Rh+child
*1st preg not prob; @ delivery Rh+ RBCs enter moms circulatory system & body will prod Rh+ antibodies a/g Rh+ RBCs; @ 2nd preg mom makes many Rh+ antibodies ->agglutination of fetal RBCs
Thrombocytes: Site of Formation
red bone marrow from megakaryocytes
mild rxn vs extreme rxn:
mild: child born w/ jaundice
extreme: erythroblastosis- stillborn fetalis
portions of cytoplasm, not entire cells
specific immunity:
1.Humoral Immunity
2.Cell Mediated Immunity
Thrombocytes: Fxn
hemostasis: prevention of blood loss from body
Humoral Immunity:
antibodies protect a/g most bacteria, viruses & antigenic chem;
hemostasis process:
1.vessel spasm
2.plug formation: stick together to plug opening
3.blood clotting or coagulation: blood transformed from fluid (solid) to gel (semisolid) thru very long series of chem rxns go on in blood
specific plasma proteins found in body- gamma globulins
mechanism of blood clotting:
1.extrinsic pathway
2.intrinsic pathway
extrinsic pathway: release
tissues release tissue thromboplastin + cofactors + Ca2+
intrinsic pathway: release
platelets release platelet factor + cofactors + Ca2+