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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define Urbanization.
The process by which more people live and work in a city.
Compare the percentage of population living in urban areas among developing and developed nations.
The developed nations tend to have higher urbanization percentages than the developing countries.
Compare urban population differences among developing and developed nations.
There are twice as many urban dwellers in developing nations as compared to developed countries.
Explain the migratory patterns in developing nations.
Migration to the cities is caused by uneven development.
The origin of a city is tied to...
-Early agricultural development
-Permanent village settlements
-Emergence of new social forms
-Urban life
What are some rivers associated with urban hearths?
-Nile River
-Indus River
-Yellow River
Clearing of tropical forests outside of Mexico City is tied to...
The oil industry
What are some problems facing megacities?
-Transportation problems
-Housing problems
-Employment problems
-Ecological problems
What is the name for illegal settlements?
Squatter settlements
What are some characteristics of slums?
-Little to no access to public services, like water or electricity
-Collection of crude shacks
-Vegetable gardens
-Bootlegged water and electricity
-Become permanent parts of city
What percentage of population in Addis Ababa live in slums?
U.N. estimates 85% of residents live in slums.
Describe Central Business District (CBD).
A dense cluster of offices and shops.
Define Social culture region.
A residential area characterized by socioeconomic traits.
What is a concentric-zone model?
-Model developed in 1925 by sociologist Ernes Burgess.
-5 radiating rings of zones that describe urban land use.
What are the 5 zones of the concentric-zone model, starting from the center?
1. CBD
2. Transition - mixture of residential and industrial land use (ghettos, slums)
3. Blue-collar residential - working class (ethnic immigrants)
4. Middle-income residential - middle class
5. Commuter residential - the "burbs"
What is a sector model?
-Model developed in 1939 by economist Homer Hoyt
-High rent residential districts shaped land-use structure of city
-Reinforced by transportation routes
-Wealthy prefer to build on out, vacant land
What is a multiple-nuclei model?
-Developed in 1945 by geographers Chauncey Harris & Edward Ullman
-City develops around multiple points
-activities cluster and repel each other
-Locate where rent is affordable to business
What are centralizing forces?
Diffusion forces that result in residences, stores and factories locating in the central city.
What is decentralization and decentralizing forces?
-Process of suburbanization and decline of inner city links
-Emptied a lot of downtowns of economic vitality.
Define agglomeration.
Part of economic centralization; mutual benefits for businesses
ie: retail stores locate near each other because of foot traffic
What are some changes that have happened to western cities in the past 50 years?
Introduction of the suburbs has caused decentralization,which has emptied many downtowns of economic vitality.
What are capital investments in central cities linked to?
The Suburbs
What are some socioeconomic factors contributing to suburbanization?
-Patrons are now shopping in the burbs.
-Rising rent due to demand of space
-Lateral Commuting; may not work in the city
What is the Federal Road Act of 1916 and the Interstate highway Act of 1956?
-Both directed government spending on transportation to cater to automobiles and trucks.
-Urban expressways and truck industry led to decentralization
What is the United States Housing Act?
-Provided public housing for those who couldn't afford private housing.
-Mostly built in the inner city
-This contributed to the view that the suburbs were refuge of the white middle-class
What are some problems that are associated with sprawl?
-The automobile is the only form of transportation (more enery, air pollution, congestion)
-Loss of agricultural land
-Water pollution
Define gentrification.
The movement of middle class people into deteriorated areas of the city center.
What is a heat island?
A mass of warmer air sitting over a city; city activities physically heat up the area
What are some features of the New Urban Landscape?
-shopping malls
-office parks
-master-planned communities
-festival settings
-decline of public space
Define culture.
Shared patterns of learned behavior.
What does geography study?
The spatial patterns and processes of the natural environment and human activities.
What are the types of geography?
-Physical: Examines Earth elements which are natural in origin.
-Cultural: Looks at elements of human endeavor.
Define globalization. Are all regional contrasts lost?
The gradual reduction of regional contrasts at the world scale; yes, all regional contrasts are lost.
What is cultural landscape?
The human imprint on the Earth; built environment
Material vs. nonmaterial culture
-Material: buildings, food, clothing, artwork
-Nonmaterial: beliefs, values, myths, symbolic meanings
What is placelessness?
Spatial standardization diminishing regional variety; potential to destroy a place's uniqueness
What is the current world's population?
6.7 billion
What is the most populous country?
China at 1,300 billion people
What is TFR and what is the TFR of the U.S.?
-Total Fertility Rate: the average numbers of children born per year
-3.0 or lower
What is demographic transition?
The comparative difference between births and deaths of an area per year.
What are population pyramids?
Graphs that compare the number of females and males in a population in different age groups.
Who was Thomas Malthus and what did he predict?
Wrote "An Essay on the Principle of Population" in 1798; believed that the world would over-populate itself into famine, war and disease
What is dialect?
the variant forms of a language
ie: pop vs. soda
What is slang?
Words and phrases understood by some or most users of a given language.
What is relocation diffusion and how did colonists aid in it?
When a small group come to an area and bring their culture and language with them; prime example is when colonists would come to new land and bring their ideals and language
What is Lingua franca?
A well-established language of communication and commerce used widely where it is not a mother tongue.
What is a major challenge in Japan's population?
More and more younger Japanese generations are moving away, leaving many older generations to populate Japan; once they depart, there will be a drastic decline in the country's population
Race vs. Ethnicity
Race: genetic differences from other groups of people
Ethnicity: cultural differences from other groups of people
What is the original and current definition of a ghetto?
-Original: Neighborhood where Jews were forced to live
-Current: A section of a city where minority groups live because of social or economic pressure
What is the final stage of the Rostow Model?
Society enters a stage of high mass consumption.
What was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution?
What was an example of transnational corporations?
General Motors or Ford
What is the correlation between industrialization and urbanized population?
The more industrialized an area gets, the higher the urbanized population gets.
What percentage of megacities are located in developing countries?
Over 50% of the world's megacities.
Define lateral commuting.
Instead of people commuting from the residential areas to the commercial areas for work, they are working within their residential area.
What is the climate like in cities?
-Temperatures are higher
-Rainfall increases
-Fog and cloudiness increases
-Levels of atmospheric pollution are higher
What are the causes of involuntary migration?
-Government policy (Jap-American internment camps)
-Warfare (Sudan)
-Ethnic cleansing (concentration camps)
-Disease (plague)
-Natural disaster (Katrina)
-Enslavement (African slave trades)
What is return migration?
Voluntary movements of a group back to its ancestral homeland or native country
ie: African-Americans moving back to the south
What is environmental racism?
There's a high likelihood that racialized minority groups, who also tend to be the poorest, will have the last/worst choice of where to live.
What is an ethnic flag?
A readily visible marker of ethnicity on the landscape
ie: Unique maize granary of the Tlaxcala state, Mexico
Centripetal vs. Centrifugal force
-Centripetal: A force that promotes national unity and solidarity
ie: attack on 9/11 brought our country together in a way that hasn’t happened in a long time
-Centrifugal: A force that disrupts internal order and unity
ie: Rwanda genocide caused Tutsi refugees to flee the country
what is a supranational organization?
A group of independent countries joined together for purposes of mutual interest
ie: European Union (EU)
What is the difference between universal religions and ethnic religions?
-Universal: actively seeks few members and aims to convert all humankind; ie. Christianity
-Ethnic: identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and does not seeks converts; ie. Judaism
How are universal and ethnic religions' calendars different?
-Universal: holidays based on life events of the founder
-Ethnic: holidays based on the changing seasons
What is animism?
The belief that inanimate objects possess souls
What are orthodox religious traditions like?
They emphasize purity of faith and are generally not open to blending with other belief systems.
What is the current fastest growing religion?
What is a pilgrimage?
A journey to a sacred place
How did Holy Communion affect grape growing?
With the spread of Christianity throughout the world, the need for grapes did too; grape growing spread out beyond the Mediterranean
Define agriculture.
The cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain nourishment or economic gain.
How does the percentage of work force involved in agriculture differ among the LDCs and MDCs?
The higher percentage of work force needed to maintain a location's agriculture, the lower the technological level of the location.
How does agriculture vary around the world?
-Physical environment
Subsistence vs. commercial agriculture
-Subsistence: production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer's family
-Commercial: production of food for profit
What are the agricultural types associated with high-income economy countries?
-Market Gardening
-Livestock Fattening
-Grain Farming
-Livestock Ranching
What is a suitcase farm?
A farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews
What are the traits of agribusiness and what are some examples of multinational powers involved?
-Farming system totally commercial; large-scale and mechanized; dependent on chemical, hybrid seeds and genetic engineering
-The five biggest hybrid vegetable seed suppliers control 75% of global market; the ten largest agrochemical manufacturers command 85% of world supply
What was the big picture idea of the "King Corn" film?
Who is it that our agricultural systems are actually benefiting the most?
What are biofuels and what are the differences between using corn and sugar cane?
-Energy derived from biological matter
-Some estimate that corn, U.S.'s main source of ethanol, takes as much energy to make as it puts out; Sugar cane, Brazil's main source, puts out 8X as much as being put in
What is an ethnic neighborhood?
A voluntary community where people of like origin reside