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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Urinary system consists of the ______ where filtration takes place, and a number of _______ passages that convey filtered urine from the kidney to outside.
1. kidneys
2. Urinary
kidney is bean shaped covered by _____ , on medial side indentation called the _____ through which the _____ artery enters and _____ vein and ureter exit..
1. capsule
2. hilum
3. renal
outer zone is called?
inner zone is called?
2. medulla
the medulla is made up of about 8-18 pyramidal structures called renal or _______ pyramids.
cortical material extends between medullary pyramids to constitute the ____ or _____ columns
these renal coulmns contain the ______ vessels and long ____ _ _____.

loops of henle
medullary substances from base of pyramids extend into cortex as medullary rays, which contain the straight _____ ______, short ______ _ ______.
1. collecting tubules
2. loops of henle
Papillae of pyramids fit into cup-shaped structures called _____ ______, which unite to form major calyces
minor calyces
major calyces unite to form a conical structure called the ____ pelvis, which tapers into a long tube, the ______.
2. ureter
Parenchyma of kidney is known as the?
convoluted uriniferous tubule.
the convoluted uriniferous tubule is made of two parts? what are they?
1. Nephron
2. Collecting tubules
Nephron--- this is the part in which urine forms, its compnents are?
1. Renal corpuscle
2. Proximal convoluted tubule
3. Loop of Henle
4. distal convoluted tubule
Collecing tubule---- these convey urine to urinary passages. They include
1. arched collecting tubules
2. straight collecting tubules
3. terminal collecting ducts (of bellini)- these open into renal papilae
Renal Corpuscle
spherical structure made up of a tuft of capillaries.
these tuft of capillaries are called the_______ invaginating a capsule of epithelial cells called_________ capsule

Glomerulus is a type II capillaries, they are supplied by an ______ glomerular arteriole and drained by _____ glomerular arteriole.
1. afferent
2. efferent
Bowmans capsule made up of simp squam cells in form of outer _____ and inner _____ layers.
1. parietal
2. visceral
The three layers that constitute the Filtration barrier are?
1. capillary endothelium of glomeruli
2. visceral epithelium of Bowmans capsule
3. their fused basement membranes in between them
afferent arteriole shows modification in its wall, where it loses elastic lamina and smooth muscle becomes short, these modified cells are called the ___________, they secrete ______.
1. juxta glomerular cells
2. renin
the granules in these cells represent a secretory product of these cells called?
renin is discharged into the blood in response _______ ____ _______ _______.
to a drop in glomerular blood pressure
It activates substance in blood called?
angiotensin I turns into angiotensin II, a strong vasoconstrictor that elevates ?
glomerular pressure
Proximal convoluted tubule is a very long twisted tubule that is attached to ?
bowmans capsule
Prox convoluted tubule--- tubule appears rounded w/ moderate lumen lined with few cuboidal cells, How many??
these cells have may microvilli, Most of the fluid of the glomerular filtrate (about ____% is _______ here?
1. 85
2. reabsorbed
Loop of henle is in the form of a __ shaped with a descending limb and an ascending limb.
Distal convoluted tubule appear oval w/ wide lumen lined by cuboidal cells... how many?
Distal convoluted tubule--
More fluid is absorbed here and is UNDER THE CONTROL of the _________ hormone of the pituitary gland.
at junction w/ ascending limb of Henle's loop, distal convoluted tubule is close relation to afferent glomerular cell, these cells are called ______
macula densa cells
Functional role of Distal convoluted tubule is not clear, believed cells may be sensitive to _________
sodium ion concentration
Distal convoluted cont--cells occupying other space between afferent and efferent glomerular and constitute what is known as ?
extraglomerular mesangial cells
(lacis, polar cushion, or pollkissin cells)
Distal convoluted cont-- extraglomerular mesangial cells are similar cells which exist in intercapillary space between glomerular capillaries known as?
intraglomerular mesangial cells
Kidney collecting tubeles-
Termial collecting ducts receive ______ from collecting tubules.
Terminal collecting ducts Open into the ___ ______
renal papilae
Urinary passages include minor and major calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra
Minor and major calyces and renal pelvis all have?
the same structureof their walls
Mucosa surface epithelium is
ureter has basically the same structure as the calyces and pelvis, surface epithelium is?
transitional, but is thicker due to a thicker musculosa.
Urinary bladder has a wide _____ and thick wall, made up of mucosa, musculosa, adventitia
Muscusa has ______ surface epithelium w/ a wide zone of lamina propria.
urethra- is a tube connecting the _________ to the outside, longer in males than in females.
urinary bladder
Male urethra is long and made up of three parts, name them.
1.Prostatic urethra
2. Membranous urethra
3. Penile urethra
Prostatic urethra is lined by _____ epithelium
membranous between prostate and penis, it is lined by _________ epithelium
Penile urethra runs into penis and is lined by _________ epithelium.
stratified columnar
Penile urethra terminal part, the _____ _____, the epithelium becomes ______ _____
1. fossa navicularis
2. stratified squamos
Eputhelial lining sends tubular invaginations, forming mucus secreting glands called urethral glands or ?
glands of litre
Female urethra- Mucosa is in the ______ portion, it is lined with _______ epithelium, but is mostly lined with ____ ______
2. transitional
3. strat squamos
mucous membrane of femal urethra lubricated by glands around lower end of urethra in the area of the vestibule, called _______ _______ _____.
minor vestibular glands