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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
regulates blood cell formation in response to decreased blood oxygen concentration, acts on specific receptors expressed on surface of CFU-E
involved in the control of blood pressure and volume, cleaves angiontensinogen to release angiotensin I
regulates uptake of Na which increases blood pressure and volume in distal convulted tubule, released from angiotensin II from zona glomerulosa
Angiotensin II
converted from angiotensin I by ACE present in lungs, forms aldosterone, potent vasoconstrictor that has a regulatory role in the control of renal and systemic vascular resistance
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
acts on collecting ducts to conserve water, diabetes insipidus occurs
consists of renal corpuscles, convulted and straight tubules, collecting tubules and ducts
Medullary ray
contains convoluted tubules, and collecting tubules and ducts
contains vasa recta, collecting ducts, and straight tubules
Vasa recta
capillary network which runs parallel to various tubules, vascular part of countercurrent exchange system that regulates the concentration of urine, helps to maintain the osmotic gradient of the medulla,
projects into minor calyx, where all the drainage takes place
functional unit of kidney, consists of renal corpuscle and tubule system, collecting ducts responsible for the final concentration of the urine
Tuft of capillaries composed of 10 to 20 capillary loops, surrounded by a double layer epithelial cup, called bowman’s capsule, endothelium of capillaries contains fenestrations, secretes renin
Bowman’s capsule
surrounds glomerulus, initial portion of nephron where blood flowing through glomerulus undergoes filtration to produce glomerular ultrafiltrate, simple squamous epithelium constitutes parietal layer
The longer the tube
The more absorption takes place
Afferent arteriole
from renal artery, give rise to capillaries that form the glomerulus
Efferent arteriole
glomerulus capillaries unite to form efferent arterioles which form capillaries
found in visceral layer of bowman’s capsule, extended around glomerular capillaries, develop pedicles which allow ultrafiltrate from blood to enter bowman’s space, blood contains 25% of glomerular filtrate
Urinary space
space between visceral and parietal layers, receptacle for the ultrafiltrate produced by the renal corpuscle
Mesangial cells
constitute the mesangium, enclosed by basal lamina of glomerular capillaries, involved in phagocytosis, structural support, and secretion
Cortical nephron
renal corpuscle found in outer part of cortex, have short loops of henle
Juxtamedullary nephron
renal corpuscle occur in proximity of the base of a medullary pyramid, have long loops of henle and long ascending thin segments
Juxtamedullary cells
contain secretory granules, secretes rennin
Proximal convoluted tubule
initial and major site of reabsorption, receives ultrafiltrate from urinary space of bowman’s capsule, contain cuboidal cells with microvilli, most of reabsorption takes place here, contain Na/K atpase pumps, reabsorb amino acids, sugars, and polypeptides
Thick descending tubule
descends into medulla, referred to as proximal straight tubule
Thin descending segment
highly permeable to water, and less permeable to NaCl and urea, part of the countercurrent exchange system in concentrating urine, transports ions
Thin ascending segment
does not actively transport ions, permeable to NaCl, impermeable to water
Thick ascending segment
allow Cl, Na, and K to enter cell from lumen, contain large cuboidal cells, less developed microvilli
Distal convoluted tubules
functions in reabsorption of Na and secretion of K, reabsorption of bicarbonate ions which acidifies urine, and secretion of ammonium, contains aldosterone and antidiuretic system
Loop of henle
contains thick and thin descending, and thick and thin ascending segments
Collecting tubules ducts
composed of simple epithelium, squamous to cuboidal in shape
Interlobar arteries
branch from renal artery which enters kidney, travel between pyramids as far as cortex
Arcuate artery
interlobar arteries from base of pyramid between medulla and cortex
Urinary passage
contains no muscularis mucosa or submucosal layer, only a muscularis externa after lamina propria