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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. What are the reasons that adolescents engage in risk taking?
• Underestimate dangers
• Look for peer acceptance / sense of belonging
• Romanticize and identify with adult behavior (smoking and sex)
• Feel alienated – sense of estrangement and loss … failure to cope
• Media
2. On average, how many high school students have had sexual intercourse?
Rates of abortion amongst pregnant teens
40-45% get abortion
Runaways - what are their characteristics?
o Conflict within families
o Low self esteem
o Depression
o Poor interpersonal skills
o Insecurity
o Anxiousness
o Impulsiveness
o Little sense of control over life’s events
5. What are the ways we can think positively about youth? (search your lectures)
• 3/5 of all teens between 12-17 are involved in service to their communities – volunteer work in public health, environment, public safety
• Promoting youth development requires helping adults to shift their paradigm about adolescence
6. Which communities are at high risk for initiating risk behavior? (and why?)
• Low SES communities and neighborhood instability
7. What is the difference between “early onset” (middle childhood) and “late onset” (teen) delinquency?
• “Early onset”
o Middle childhood
o Biological risk factors and child rearing practices combined
• “Late onset”
o Adolescence/puberty
o Peer influences
• Type of delinquent acts vary with age – adolescents violate curfews, smoke marijuana, drink alcohol, petty theft, vandalism, burglary, larceny
8. Strategies of community co-operation (collaborative communities lecture)
• Coordinate a system of local services for children, youth and family
• Youth – parents (family) – community
• Health, education, social and justice services provided to young people who may be moved from their home because of abuse, neglect, delinquency or special needs
• Community includes socioeconomic characteristics of one’s neighborhood, service systems in community (including schools), religious organizations, the media, and people who live in the community
• Ecological perspective – community characteristics have profound impact on adolescent development
• Youth/community partnerships
Youth/community partnerships
o Rebuilding communities is central to reinventing youth services… creating youth-empowering environments that offer young people the opportunity to …
• Experience feeling a part of supportive community
• Meet needs for mastery of skills and tasks
• Feel involved in determining their own future, while recognizing society’s need to control harmful behavior
• Contribute to community
o Cultivate good relations with local media to ensure organization’s positive efforts receive coverage
o Connect with other youth-serving agencies to collaborate on strategies for promoting positive youth images
o Conduct special community forums to educate people about need to shift away from funding categorical, problem-focused youth services to funding developmental opportunities for young people
o Conduct local press conferences to share positive information about young people
o Organize events at which youth are visible in the community in positive ways (ex. volunteering)
9. Socio-economic status (SES) and neighborhood stability
• Links between low SES, adolescent delinquent and problem behavior may be due to lack of community interventions in poor neighborhoods to monitor youth activities
• High SES = positively associated with academic achievement, negatively associated with dropping out of school
• Neighborhood instability linked with higher rates of substance abuse in young adolescents
• Adolescent boys involved in criminal justice system who move to higher SES neighborhoods are less likely to be arrested again compared to those who remain in low SES environments
10. Depiction of teens in media
• Primarily involved in delinquent behavior, risk-taking, etc.
11. Who admits to episodic drinking?
• Who drinks at parties, etc
12. Suicide rates amongst adolescents – how prevalent is it?
• Increasing in recent years
• 24% thought seriously about attempting suicide in past year
• 18% made specific plan
• 3rd leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds (14% of all deaths in age group)
• Suicide peaks between 15 and 24 years
• Every 90 min a young person commits suicide
13. Ethnic and racial differences in onset and rates of suicide
• African Americans die by suicide a full decade before Caucasian Americans
o Suicidal ideation is similar to the general population
o More black women than men report
• Native Americans have highest suicide rate (large difference b/w tribes)
o Navajos – close to national average
o Apaches – 3 times as high as national average
o More traditional tribes = lower rates
14. Depression categories
a. Dysthymia
o Less severe form of depression, lasts much longer
b. Adjustment disorder
o Depressed mood brought on by stress, brief
c. Major depressive disorder
o Occurs when adolescents experience severe periods of depression lasting several weeks or more
o Mean length: 6-9 months
o Symptoms
• Difficulty concentrating
• Loss of pleasure
• Slowed speech and movements
• Vegetative signs: sleep, loss of appetite, weight changes
o Risk factors
• Developmental deficits
• Family instability
• Psychopathology and criminality in the biological family
• Inhibited or under controlled temperaments in children
15. Ginzberg phases of development
• Major theory of career development
• Factors influencing vocational choice
o Personality
o Family influences
o Teachers
o Gender stereotypes
o Access to vocational information
• Vocational preparation of non-college bound
o 20% US, 15% Canada high school graduates do not continue
o Many have limited job options
o Often poorly prepared, lack vocational training (low level high school jobs)
o Europe has model vocational training
16. Super’s self-concept theory
• Major theory of career development
(1) Crystallization
(2) Specification
(3) Implementation
(4) Stabilization
(5) Consolidation
17. Holland’s personality theory
• Major theory of career development
o Investigative
o Social
o Realistic
o Artistic
o Conventional
o Enterprising
Left-brain oriented careers
Left: Planners, Lawyers, Editors, Technologists, Writers, Bookkeepers, Critics, Management scientists, Administrators, Doctors, Authors, Tax experts, Researchers
Right-brained orientated careers
19. Know 3 phases of vocational development – Ginzberg’s Theory
(1) Fantasy Period
o Early and middle childhood
o Fantasize about careers
(2) Tentative Period
o Ages 11-16
o Evaluate interests, abilities and values
(3) Realistic Period
o Late adolescence to adulthood
o Explore careers and crystalize category
20. Characteristics of employed adolescents – what struggles do they face?
• According to the 1996 Current Population Survey: Approximately 52% of youth ages 15-17 work in the retail sector (employed in department stores, grocery stores, restaurants, and retail stores) and 26% are employed in the service sector (working in education, recreation, health services, and private households)
• Characteristics
o Look back at lecture and book
o “who”
• Effects
o Paid work may limit time for leisure, school-related and volunteer activities
o Young workers spend less time doing homework
o Young workers are more likely to come to school tired and unprepared
o May become more attached to unstructured leisure activity (going to parties, using drugs and alcohol, cruising around in cars) … more compatable with work schedule
o Work hours during adolescence is positively associated with delinquency, substance abuse and sexual activity
21. Why are there so many “kids on the fringe”?
• Factors associated with high numbers of kids on the fringes are
o Heightened level of personal freedom
o Families with two working parents which leads to many latchkey children in our communities
o Increased academic pressure
o Cultural alienation (especially minority youth)
22. Guns/firearms and deaths in school
• 77% of violent deaths in school are caused by firearms
23. Risk vs. resilience based approaches – what is resilience all about?
• Resilience- focuses on strengths, abilities to overcome
• Risk – focuses on risk
24. What do adults have to do with teenage resilience? (hint: think about mentoring, coaches, teachers, etc)
• Schools that provide students with a sense of shared, cooperative responsibility and belonging, convey high expectations for participation, and provide high levels of individual support for students, tend to enhance resilience
25. Resilience and parenting styles
• A warm, nurturing parenting style, with both clear limit setting and respect for the growing autonomy of adolescents, appears to be associated with resilience in adolescents
• Strong, positive mother-adolescent relations have also been found to be associated with resilience among youth when fathers are absent from the home
26. Resilience: what does it involve
• Young people with more access to social support are more resilient and make a smoother transition to adulthood
• “Resilience” refers to having good outcomes despite serious threats to healthy development
• Can be facilitated not just by reducing the level of risk, but also by promoting competence and strengthening assets
• Many psychologists propose that resilience should be seen as a function of developmental experiences that are grounded in a community context
• The community should be able to offer the relationships, resources, and commitment needed to provide the kinds of supports and developmental experiences that produce resilient youth
• Factors associated with resilience and positive outcomes
o Stable, positive relationships with at least one caring adulthood
o Religious and spiritual anchors
o High, realistic academic expectations and adequate support
o Positive family environment
o Emotional intelligence and ability to cope with stress
28. “Homeless to Harvard”
• Girl who’s mom is schizophrenic, addicted to drugs, has AIDS
• Liz is a smart girl
• Does not go to school
• Dad is smart but does not care
• Eva and teacher – loving role models in Liz’s life