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56 Cards in this Set

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What is a selectively permeable membrane?

It is the cell membrane that only allows certain materials to cross it.

What is a permeable membrane?

A membrane that lets all materials to cross it.

What is an impermeable membrane?

A membrane that does not allow any materials to cross it.

What is diffusion?

Diffusion is the movement of particles in liquids and gases from a higher area of concentration to an area of lower concentration (the spreading out process). Like when you cook popcorn and you can smell it all over the house, not just the kitchen.

What is osmosis?

-Osmosis is the diffusion of water particles through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to a low concentration.


-70% of a cell's content is water.


-Water particles can easily move into and out of cells by diffusion.

What do a plant's tissues do?

They transport nutrients throughout the plant.

What are vascular tissues?

The vascular tissues connect the roots to the leaves.

What are the 2 types of vascular tissues?

Xylem tissues and Phloem tissues.

What do Xylem tissues do?

They direct water and minerals that were absorbed by the root cells to every cell in the root cell to every cell in the plant, cells like the ones in the stem and the leaves.

What does the Phloem tissue do?

The tissue that transports sugars to the rest of the plant.

How do roots get water?

Roots have tiny hairs at the tips that allow water to enter the plant through osmosis.

What is the plant's food producing organs?

Leaves.

Photosynthesis manufactures sugars from what?

Water, carbon dioxide and sunlight.

Where does most photosynthesis take place?

In the cells in the leaves that contain chloroplasts.

What are stomata?

Tiny openings in the leaf that allow oxygenated air to enter the leaf

What is transpiration?

The loss of water from a plant through evaporation.

Why do cells have different appearances?

They are specialised for particular tasks, like muscle cells are shaped to move parts of your body.

What are two disadvantages to being a unicellular organism?

They cannot grow very large. They can only live in watery, food rich environments.

What are 4 advantages to being a multicellular organism?

They live in a wide variety of environments, they grow very large, they obtain energy from a wide variety of foods, and their bodies are more complex because their cells are specialized, therefore they work more efficiently.

What do muscle tissues do?

The muscle tissues move parts of the body.

What do nerve tissues do?

Nerve tissues carry signals between the brain and other body parts.

What are Epithelial tissues?

Skin tissues.

What are connective tissues?

The connective tissues connect and support different parts of the body.

What are epidermal tissues?

The epidermal tissues protect the outside of a plant.

What three systems all work together to give all your cells a steady supply of food and oxygen to help provide the body with energy?

The digestive system, the respiratory system, and the circulatory system.

What does the digestive system do?

The digestive system is how food enters the body through your mouth then goes to the stomach and the intestines. The food is broken up into small parts along the way. Some food is used by cells, and other are expelled from the body as waste.

What are the parts of the digestive system?

The mouth, the salivary glands, the esophagus, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the stomach, the liver, the small intestine, the large intestine, the rectum, and the anus.

Label the digestive system. 

Label the digestive system.

What is colon cancer?

Colon cancer is a long term effect and is cancer in the colon caused by a lack of fibre, making the feces take longer to digest, which irritates the lining of the colon. It can also be caused by having a fast paced life, for example skipping meals, eating food fast or eating fast food. Colon cancer is only curable by surgery.

What is ulcer?

Ulcer is when the lining of either the stomach or the small intestine is damaged by stomach acid. Contributing factors are long term emotional stress, smoking, drinking alcohol as a long term use, and taking aspirin as a long term use. Ulcer is only curable by heavy dose of antibiotics.

What is appendicitis?

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix (an offshoot of the large intestine). It contains cells that fight off viruses and bacteria. Appendicitis is caused by a blockage of feces in a low fibre diet causing lack of blood flow. It can rupture and poison the person, and can eventually lead to death if not treated and ruptures in abdomen.

What is inhalation?

Breathing in oxygen.

What is exhalation?

Breathing out carbon dioxide.

What is the larynx?

The voice box.

What is the trachea?

The windpipe. It connects air from the nose and mouth to the lungs.

What are the bronchus?

The bronchus is the main branch form the trachea. Each branch flows into the lungs.

What are the bronchioles?

They are further branching of the bronchi into the lungs.

What are the aveoli?

The aveoli are at the end of the bronchioles. It is here that the oxygen passes into the blood, through osmosis, through the capillaries, which are small blood vessels.

What is the diaphragm?

The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the chest cavity. When it pulls down, it creates a suction-like force that expands your lungs, drawing in air.

What is asthma?

Asthma is when cells in your air tubes make more mucus than normal. This mucus is very thick and sticky. It tends to clog up the tubes making it hard to breathe.

What is bronchitis?

Bronchitis is caused by and irritation in the lining of your lungs by continual coughing, excess mucus creation, and cilia destruction.

What is lung cancer?

Lung cancer is a cancer of the lung, caused by particles in the smoke of cigarettes contacting the lining of the lungs, which make it produce excess cell growth, which will starve out healthy cells.

Label the respiratory system. 

Label the respiratory system.

What does the circulatory system do?

The circulatory system circulates the blood around the body.

What function does the heart serve in the circulatory system?

The pumping action of the heart circulates the blood throughout the body, transporting oxygen and food (nutrients) to all body cells.

What is another function of the blood?

Blood carries away wastes produced by cells.

What are red blood cells specialised to do?

Carry oxygen.

What does this system consist of?

The heart, blood, and blood vessels.

What does high blood pressure do?

High blood pressure leads to heart attacks and strokes. Blood pressure indicates the volume of blood, the heart rate, the artery size, the artery elasticity, and the blood viscosity.

What are some factors that cause disorders in the circulatory system?

Nicotine causes blood vessels to constrict, increasing blood pressure and heart rate. A poor diet causes high blood pressure, and a lack of regular exercise is another factor.

How can you reduce the risk of a disorder in the circulatory system?

You can choose healthy lifestyle habits like not smoking, eating healthy, and by doing regular exercise.

What does the excretory system do?

It filters waste materials from the blood.

What does the excretory system consist of?

This system consists of two key organs, both kidneys, but there are, however, more organs in this system.

What does the nervous system do?

Your body, using nerves, sends information to the brain. The brain send signals to muscles, skin, and blood vessels. They all work together to help your body preform properly.

What does the nervous system consist of?

It consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves.

How can the body systems be disrupted?

Diet and exercise (or lack of), drugs, injury, and disease can affect body systems and disrupt how they function.