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40 Cards in this Set

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What is sustainability?

When trees are keeping up with growth for trees getting cut down

What is the difference between deforestation and reforestation?

Deforestation gets rid of the forest while reforestation protects and plants more trees.

Name five of the major factors of soil development.

1. Water - how wet it is.

2. Parent material

3. Climate

4. Vegetation

5. Time


What are three types of decomposers that live in the soil?

1. Earthworms

2. Insects

3. Microscopic organisms

Name 5 reasons why dandelions are considered a champion competitor or supervillain.

1. Powerful roots

2. Broad leaves

3. Super seeds

4. Adaptable

5. Chemical weapons

Name three problems due to pesticide use.

1. Creates a resistant pest species.

2. Residue builds up in the soil

3. Kills or harms the wrong species or non-target organism


Is encouraging bluebirds to live on a farm as a means to control grasshoppers an example of herbicide use, insecticide use, biological controls, or crop rotation?

Biological controls

Which technology does not help reduce soil erosion: irrigation, shelterbelts, zero tillage, or crop rotation?


True or false. Adding organic matter to soil increases soil fertility.


What is nitrogen used by a plant for?

It is a nutrient used to produce green leaves and stems.

48 - 0 - 0 is a fertilizer that contains 48% of this nutrient?

A. Phosphorus

B. Potassium

C. Nitrogen

D. Sulfur

C. Nitrogen

Define hydroponics.

A technology by which plants are grown without soil. Roots are buried in gravel and nutrients are added to the water.

What are the three major components of fertilizer?

Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium

What does phosphorus do for a plant?

Helps with germination

What does potassium do for a plant?

Helps make the plant flower

What five kinds of organisms live in the soil?

1. Fungi

2. Insects

3. Bacteria

4. Earthworms

5. Microscopic organisms


What role does fungi and bacteria play in the soil?

Bacteria breaks down dead plants, fungi?

What is erosion?

The breaking and wearing away of soil, remove nutrients.

Describe 3 ways how soil erosion occurs.

Soil erosion happens when there is a loss of organic matter wearing away of topsoil.

1. Vegetation is removed

2. The soil is exposed to Sun and wind

3. The soil is tilled too much

Why is soil erosion is a problem?

Soil erosion is a problem because the soil then can't hold water.

Name five ways that farmers are able to help save the soil

1. Zero tillage

2. Wide cultivation

3. Shelter belts

4. Reduce irrigation (leads to salty soil)

5. Strip farming (crop rotation)

6. Seed drill

7. Reshape the waterways or modified drainage

Why are most countries forced to import food?

Because they cannot grow enough to support their population

True or false. 10% of the population uses 90% of the resources


In Alberta what percentage of land is managed farmland?

33%. 20 million hectares of 60 million hectares is managed farmland, a 3 billion dollar industry

Name five crops grown in Alberta.





Specialty crops like beans corn and beets



Legumes like peas, beans, and lentils

How are crops irrigated?

Using irrigation systems which waters crops using a large system of pipes and sprinklers

What is monoculture?

Growing only one type of plant in a field

What is a positive and negative of monoculture?

Positive - cuts costs and easier to harvest

Negative - decreases diversity, may see an increase in pests

What is soil a mixture of?

50% solid materials (45% is weathered rock sand and clay and 55% humus)

50% spaces filled with air and water

What is humus?

Soil rich in organic material

How is plant and animal matter broken into humus?

By decomposers like bacteria, fungus, and worms

True or false. fertilizer cannot be organic or man-made.

False. Organic fertilizer would be manure and man-made is manufactured to contain three main nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Typically 30-10-20.

What were the dirty thirties a result of?

Drought and poor farming practices that stripped the land bare.

Why are pests a problem?

They can cause plants to die or to produce less than they would have.

What are four ways to control pests?

1. Culture control

2. Physical control

3. Chemical control

4. Biological control

4 controls

What is a cultural control of pests?

When farmers grow a crop they are sure is capable of successfully competing against pests in the area.

Name four physical controls of pests?

Tilling, hand weeding, fencing, trapping

What chemical controls are used for insects, fungi, and weeds?

Insects - insecticides

Fungi - fungicides

Weeds - herbicides

Give an example of a biological control in a garden.

Releasing ladybugs to control aphids.

What does it mean when something is grown organically?

The plant is grown without chemical pesticides or fertilizer