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29 Cards in this Set

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apartheid
A political policy in South Africa where black South Africans could only live in certain areas
Cold War
Non shooting conflict between the Soviet Union and their allies and the United States and their allies
communism
A system of government in which a single, totalitarian, party holds power. It is characterized by state control of the economy, and restriction on personal freedoms
Cultural Revolution : (1966-1976)
Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
democracy
A system of government in which the citizens hold the legislative, judicial, and executive power, based on majority rule.
dictatorship
A system of government in which a country is ruled by a single person with absolute power.
Enlightenment
A movement in the 18th century that stressed the importance of reason and science in philosophy and the study of human society. Occurred in Western Europe.
European Community/European Union
Economic union between countries in Europe for mutual gain.
famine
Widespread hunger caused by the near complete lack of food
fascism
A system of government that promotes extreme nationalism, repression, anticommunism, and is ruled by a dictator.
Feudalism
A social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval European life.
Five Year Plans
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after World War II. Included massive industrialization and farm collectivization, where peasants lived collectively on government owned farms, often resulted in widespread famine as many peasants resisted this policy.
genocide
The killing of all the people from a ethnic group, religious group, or people from a specific nation.
Glasnost
policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.
Green Revolution
Throughout the 20th century, scientists worked on improving agriculture, especially in areas with high populations.
Holocaust
The attempted genocide of European Jews, Gypsies, mentally retarded, homosexuals, and others by Nazi Germany during the Second World War.
Imperialism
The complete control of a weaker nation’s social, economic, and political life by a stronger nation.
Industrial Revolution
the fundamental change in the way goods were produced through the use of machines, capital, and the centralization of work forces in factories. It completely altered the social, economic, and political structure of most of Europe, Japan, and the United States.
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union’s policy of isolation during the Cold War. The Iron Curtain isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
Meiji Restoration
The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
militarism
Political policy that is dominated by the military and the competitive buildup of arms.
modernization
To change something to make it conform to modern standards
monarchy
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch.
nationalism
Pride in one’s country or culture, often excessive in nature.
Neolithic Revolution
(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
Reformation
The protest against perceived wrong doings by the Catholic Church during the early 16th century. Main leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin
Scientific Revolution
An offshoot of the Renaissance in which scientists questioned traditional beliefs about the workings of the universe. One of the main ideas to come out of the Scientific Revolution was the use of the Scientific Method. The Scientific Method uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on how the universe works.
terrorism
The use of violence for political purpose.
totalitarianism
An ideology where all social, economic, and political powers are centered in the government completely.