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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tiny particles that make up all substances
Substances that are made up of only one type of atom

Groups (Periodic Table)

Columns in periodic table that arrange the elements. Each of these columns contain elements with similar chemical properties.

Different types of atom bonded together
A grouping of two or more atoms bonded together
The substances you start with in a chemical equation
The new substances made in a reaction
Word Equation
Equations that doesn't use symbols e.g. hydrogen + oxygen -> water
Symbol Equation
Equation that helps you to see how much of each substance is involved in a reaction e.g CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2
Balanced Equation
Equation that has same number of each type of atom on both sides of the equation
Law Of Conservation Of Mass
"The total mass of the products formed in a reaction is equal to the total mass of the reactants"
State Symbols
Symbols added to a balanced symbol equation to give extra information e.g. (s) for solids, (l) for liquids, (g) for gases and (aq) for aqueous solutions
Aqueous Solutions
Substances dissolved in water
Something that is made up of two or more substances (elements or compounds) that are not chemically combined together

Technique used to separate substances that are insoluble in a particular solvent from those that are soluble in the solvent


Technique used to separate a soluble solid from a solvent

Simple Distillation
Technique used to separate a solvent from a mixture of a solvent and a soluble solid
Fractional Distillation
Technique used to separate mixtures of miscible (the word miscible describes liquids that dissolve in each other, mixing completely) liquids
Paper Chromatography
Technique used to separate substances from mixtures; it works because some compounds in a mixture will dissolve better than others in the solvent chosen.
Nucleus (Atom)

Very small structure located at the centre of the atom. It contains two types of sub-atomic particle; protons and neutrons.

The mass of an atom is concentrated in here.


These sub-atomic particles orbits the nucleus in an atom and they are negatively charged (their relative charge is -1)

Sub-atomic particles which have positive charge (their relative charge is +1)
Sub-atomic particles which have no charge (neutral)
Relative mass of a proton or neutron
Very Small
Relative mass of an electron
Atomic Number

The number of protons in each atom of an element. The chemical elements are placed in order of this specific number.

Mass Number
The number of protons + neutrons
A charged atom

Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. They always have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

They also always have the same chemical properties, because their reactions depend on their electronic structures.

Hydrogen isotope with 1 neutron in the nucleus
Hydrogen isotope with 2 neutron in the nucleus
Energy Level

aka Shell

Number of electrons that first (and lowest) energy level can hold
Number of electrons that second and beyond energy levels can hold
Electronic Structure
Numbers of electrons in each energy level written down e.g. 2,8,1
Noble Gases

-The elements in group 0 of the periodic table.

-The elements in group 0 are very stable, since they have eight electrons in their outermost shell.

-Exception is the helium, which has only 2 electrons in its outermost shell. However, since the 2 electrons are in the first shell, this makes the helium very stable too.

-The elements in group 0 are monatomic gases.

Group Number
The number of electrons in the outermost shell of an atom is equal to this number.

-These substances conduct electricity

-In general, these substances have much higher melting/boiling points.

-These substances are ductile and malleable.

-These elements are found on the left-hand side and centre of the periodic table.


-These substances are generally electrical insulators.

-These substances have lower melting/boiling points in general.

-These substances are brittle.

-These elements are found in the top right-hand corner of the periodic table, above the 'staircase'.

aka Single-atom
Alkali Metals

-Elements group 1

-All the group 1 elements are very reactive; they have to be stored in oil, which stops them from reacting with oxygen in the air.

-The reactivity increases going down the group

-All elements in group 1 have very low density compared to other metals.

-All elements in group 1 are also very soft and can be cut with a knife.

-Group 1 elements have a silvery, shiny surface when first cut.

-Going down the group, the melting points and boiling points get lower and lower.


-They are group 7 elements

-They are toxic non-metals

-They have low melting points and boiling points.

-Their melting/boiling points increase going down the group

-They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.

-They are diatomic molecules. The atoms in each pair are joined to each other by a covalent bond.

-The elements get less reactive going down the group.

Elements that exist as molecules made up of pairs of atoms

Transition Elements (Metals)

-They are all metals and they are positioned in the large central block of the periodic table between group 2 and group 3.

-They are good conductors of electricity and thermal energy.

-They are hard and strong.

-They have high densities.

-They have high melting points.