Research Paper On Atomic Theory

Atomic Theory The atom is the smallest unit of an element. It is composed of two main parts. The nucleus is the central point of an atom. Compacted in that small space are neutrons and protons that constantly jiggle. Neutrons are uncharged particles that add mass to the nucleus without adding a charge. The protons are positively charged particles that are also located in the nucleus and symbolized as p+. The second part of an atom is the electron cloud. The electron cloud is a cloud of electron which surrounds the nucleus. The electrons are the third type of subatomic particle- along with protons and neutrons. Located outside of the nucleus, electrons are negatively charged. Due to their location and their ability to react with …show more content…
Antoine Lavoisier, a French scientist in the 1700’s, made the jump from qualitative to quantitative observations. He began to use the balance and the power of math rather than what can be seen by the naked eye. This paved the way for future scientists to predict elements and see trends. John Dalton came along in the 1800’s; he did research on atoms and came up with a theory to prove their existence. This was known as the atomic theory. The atomic theory states that all elements are composed of atoms. He also realized that all atoms of a specific element would have the same characteristics. Lastly, he found that an element is always made of the same proportion and atoms can use different proportions to form different elements. Although Dalton did a great deal to define the atom, he was unable to make any progress with the structure of the …show more content…
Each new discovery brought a new point of view which caused someone to build a new model, using a mix of traditional ideas along with new theories. J.J. Thompson was the first to design a contemporary model of the atom. His model is referred to as the plum pudding model, because it mirrors a bowl of pudding with plums inside. The next great change to this came from Bohr. He used the concept of electrons circling around a nucleus in orbitals to create the planetary model. Today, the modern atom model is the cloud model. The electrons still revolve in orbitals, but it is now known that these orbitals are not an exact measure, they are simply the places where an electron is most likely to be. This concept has a basis in probability. Also, there are different orbitals, known as the s, p, d, and f orbitals. Each type carries a different number of

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