Group 1 Elements Lab Report

2129 Words 9 Pages
Introduction
For the most part, the periodic table groups atoms together which are similar in structure and property. Groups or columns share similar electronic configurations, on which a variety of properties are based1. In the lab, the tested elements include those from Group 1, Group 2, Period 3, Period 4, Period 5, Period 6, and a series of metals (Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Tin, Zinc). Group 1 elements have one valence electron and are extremely reactive. Most of the time, compounds containing Alkali metals are soluble in water. Alkaline earth metals, found in Group 2, have two valence electrons and are quite reactive. Their solubility depends on the identity of the anion that they are bonded to. For example, BaSO4 and BaF2 are
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In general, it increases from left to right across a period and from bottom to top up a group. This trend stems from changes in effective nuclear charge and atomic radius. Electron affinity is a quantitative value pertaining to an atom’s ability to accept an electron. Electron affinity is greatest in the upper-right corner of the periodic table and least in the lower-left. Atomic radius is defined as “one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms”.3 Atomic radius increases from right to left across a period, and from top to bottom down a group. Melting point is the energy required to break the bonds holding together an element in its solid state. This property does not have a standard trend, but in general, metals have a high melting point and non-metals have a low melting point. Lastly, metallic character is the tendency of an atom to lose an electron. Metallic character increases from right to left across a period and from top to bottom down a group. The purpose of the lab is to observe and explain the effects of the structure of an element on its characteristics, including its reactivity, solubility and melting …show more content…
Using Microsoft’s Excel software, the melting points of elements from Group 1, Period 3, Period 4, Period 5, and Period 6 were found on the WebElements website under the shaded ball-and-stick chart tab. This data was inserted into an Excel spreadsheet and plotted in order to yield a graph for each group/period of elements. The graph compared atomic numbers to melting points. For the next part of the lab, various solutions were mixed. First, a well apparatus and solutions of .1M Ba(NO3)2, .1M Ca(NO3)2, .1M Mg(NO3)2, .1M Sr(NO3)2, 1M H2SO4, .1M Na2CO3, .1M (NH4)2C2O4, and .1M KIO3 were collected. 10 drops of 1M H2SO4 were reacted separately with 5 drops of .1M Ba(NO3)2, .1M Ca(NO3)2, .1M Mg(NO3)2 and .1M Sr(NO3)2. Next, 5 drops of .1M Na2CO3, .1M (NH4)2C2O4, and .1M KIO3 were reacted separately with 5 drops of .1M Ba(NO3)2, .1M Ca(NO3)2, .1M Mg(NO3)2 and .1M Sr(NO3)2. Each of the reactions were performed in the well apparatus. Observations such as color change or the precipitate formation were

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