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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Smallest part of an element
A substance which consists of only one type of atom
A substance consisting of two or more different elements that are chemically combined
Two or more different elements which are not chemically combined
Metal ions
Lose electrons to form positive ions
Non-metal ions
Gain electrons to form negative ions
Ionic bond
Metal atom and a non-metal atom bonding by transferring electrons
The number of outer electrons equals..
Its group number
Ionic compounds-melting/boiling point?
They have high melting and boiling points because they have strong electrostatic bonds in all directions which all need to be broken in order to be boiled or melted
Covalent bond
Two non-metal atoms bond by sharing electrons
Two or more atoms join together chemically
Simple molecules-melting/boiling point?
They have low melting and boiling points because they have weak intermolecular forces
Ionic compounds - conduct electricity?
Even though they are made up of ions they have no overall charge. However, when melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity because the ions are free to move and carry the current.
Simple molecules - conduct electricity?
Simple molecules do not have an overall electrical charge and so they do not conduct electricity
Also, they are insoluble in water
Macromolecule-melting/boiling point?
They have high melting points because the structures are held together by strong covalent bonds
Giant covalent structure-conduct electricity?
They do not contain ions so they do not conduct electricity
Also, they are insoluble in water
Elements in Group 1 form ionic compounds with what charge?
Single positive charge
Elements in Group 7 form ionic compounds with what charge?
Single negative charge
Electrostatic charge
The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions acting in all directions
Metal structure
Giant regular pattern
Electrons in outer shell are delocalised and so can move through the structure. This causes electrostatic attractions between the metal ions and the free electrons
Giant covalent structure
What forces are overcome when a substance melts or boils?
Covalent bonds
What substances consist of simple molecules?
Gases, liquids or solids which have relatively low melting or boiling points
Ionic compound
A giant ionic lattice
Examples of macromolecules (3)
Silica (silicon dioxide)
Structure of diamond
A macromelucule where each carbon atom is covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms
Structure of graphite
A macromolecule where each carbon atom covalently bonds to three other carbon atom - leaving one delocalised
Graphite properties -why?
Soft and slippery because there are weak intermolecular forces between the layers so they can easily slide over each other
Graphite's delocalised electrons is similar to...
Formed with different numbers of carbons
Structure of fullerene
Based on hexagonal rings of carbon atoms
Uses of fullerene
Drug delivery into the body
Nanotubes e.g. tennis rackets
Metal - conduct electricity?
Yes because of their delocalised electrons
Metal properties- why?
Can be bent or shaped because the layers are able to slide over each other
Conduction depends on...
The ability of electrons to move throughout the metal
Two or more different metals
Alloy characteristics - why?
The different metals used each have a different atom size - distorting the structure, making it more difficult for the layers to slide over each other, thus making alloys harder than pure metals
Shape memory alloy - property and example
Can return to original shape after being deformed
E.g. dental braces - nitinol
What do the properties of polymers depend on? (2)
What they are made from
The conditions under which they were made
Thermosoftening polymer structure
Individual tangled chains with with weak intermolecular intermolecular forces (no cross links)
Thermosetting polymer structure and property
Chains with cross links between them
They do not melt when heated
Low density and high density poly(ethene) is produced by (2)
Using different catalysts and reaction times
Structures which are 1-100nm in size
Nanoparticle properties (2)
Different to the same materials in bulk
High surface to volume ratio
Uses of nanoparticles (7)
Stronger and lighter construction materials
Sun cream
Relative mass of a proton
Relative mass of a neutron
Relative mass of an electron
Mass number
Total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Same element with different mass numbers - some may have more neutrons than another
Relative atomic mass
Mass number number compares every element to the carbon 12 isotope
Relative formula mass
The sum of the relative atomic mass in a compound
The relative formula mass of a substance in grams
Advantages of a mass spectrometer (3)
Sensitive - only needs a small sample
Chemical analysis
Identifies additives in foods
Paper chromatography
Detects artificial colours
Gas chromatography
The compounds needed to be identified are vaporised and then carried by a gas which is filled with a solid material. The compounds move at different speeds causing them to seperate.
Retention time
The time taken for a substance to travel through the column in a gas spectrometer
Mass spectrometer
Can be linked to a gas spectrometer; it finds out the relative atomic mass of each substance passing through and thus can help identify the substance
The number of peaks on a gas chromatograph shows
The number of compounds present
The position of the peak on a gas chromatograph shows
The retention time
Calculating percentage mass of an element in a compound
(Relative mass of element in compound ÷ relative formula mass of compound) × 100
Calculating the empirical formula
Divide the mass of each element by their atomic mass
Divide each of these answers by the smallest to get the ratio
Moles equals
Mass ÷ Mr
Atomic mass
Relative formula mass
Why do we not get the maximum theoretical yield? (3)
The reaction may not go to completion if it's reversible
Some of the product may be lost
Some of the reactants may react in ways different from what is expected
Amount of product obtained
Rate of reaction
Amount of reactant/amount of product produced ÷ time
Activation energy
The minimum amount of energy particles must have in order to react
Ways of increasing the rate of reaction (5)
Increase temperature
Increase pressure
Increase concentration
Increase surface area
Using a catalyst
Why asre catalysts used in industrial processes?
Reduces costs
Exothermic reaction
Transfers energy to surroundings
Examples of exothermic reaction
Hand warmers
Endothermic reaction
Takes in energy from the surroundings
Examples of endothermic reactions
Thermal decomposition
Injury packs
Metal + acid makes
Salt + hydrogen
Problem with making a soluble salt from a metal
Some are too reactive and some are not reactive enough
Acid + base makes
Salt + water
Insoluble alkaline
Acid + alkali makes
Salt + water
Describe the process of making a salt from an insoluble base
The base is added to the acid until no more will react
The excess solid is then filtered off
How can we tell when an acid and alkali have completely reacted?
By using an indicator because it should be neutral
Insoluble salt
Uses of a precipitate
Removing unwanted ions
Treating water
Examples of bases
Metal oxides and hydroxides
Soluble hydroxide
Hydrochloric acid makes
Nitric acid makes
Sulfuric acid makes
Ammonia dissolves in water to make
Alkaline solution
What is the alkaline solution made from ammonia used for?
Ammonium salts which are used as a fertiliser
Hydrogen ions make solutions
Hydroxide ions make solutions
pH scale 1
Very acidic
Acid + alkaline hydroxide solution makes
Neutral salt solution + water
pH scale 7
All group 1 metal compounds are
All nitrates are
All chlorides are
Soluble except silver and lead
All chlorides are
Soluble except silver and lead
All sulfates are
Soluble except for calcium, lead and barium
All chlorides are
Soluble except for group 1 metal carbonates
Describe the method of making a soluble salt from a metal and acid
Place both reactants in a flask, the hydrogen produced will simply bubble away leaving you with the salt which can form crystals
Describe the method of making a soluble salt from a metal oxide (insoluble base) and acid
Place both reactants in a beaker until no more will react and then filter it to remove any excess.
In order to get rid of the oxygen produced you must boil the solution which will leave you with the salt. Leave this salt near a window and it will form crystals
Acid + carbonate makes
Salt + water + carbon dioxide
Describe the method of making a soluble salt from an acid and an alkali (soluble base)
Add indicator to the alkali and then add drops of acid until it turns neutral. Leave this solution in an evaporation disk to get rid of the water produced to let it form crystals
Describe the method of making a soluble salt from an acid and carbonate
Place both in a flask, carbon dioxide will bubble away. Leave the solution to evaporate and then this will form crystals
Describe the method of making an insoluble salt from two soluble solutions
Pour one into the other and then filter it
Passing an electric current through an ionic substance causing it to break down into its elements
Substance broken down during electrolysis
At the negative electrode
The positive ions are attracted; they gain electrons to become neutral
Gaining electrons
At the positive electrode
Negative ions are attracted; they lose electrons to become neutral
Losing electrons
Half equation of Cl at the positive electrode
Why is cryolite used during the electrolysis of aluminium?
It lowers the melting point of aluminium oxide from 2000 go 900 degrees centigrade
What forms at the negative electrode in aluminium oxide electrolysis?
What forms at the positive electrode in aluminium oxide electrolysis?
Oxygen ~> Carbon dioxide
The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution produces
Hydrogen from the sea water at the negative electrode and chlorine from the sodium chloride at the positive electrode.
Sodium hydroxide is also produced
Use of sodium hydroxide
Uses of chlorine