Copper Atom Research Paper

Atoms are what make up what we call “matter.” They are the smallest units of a chemical element, and they consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons. These components form an atom’s subatomic particles. Before discussing the copper atom at length, we must first be able to understand the components that comprise an atom. The first of these components that make up an atom is the proton. The proton is a very important part of an atom, because the atomic number of an atom is equivalent to the number of protons that that atom has. Additionally, the mass of an atom is equal to the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons of that atom. The number of electrons that an atom has is also equal to the number of protons that that atom has. …show more content…
The copper atom has an atomic number of 29, which means that is also has 29 protons and 29 electrons. It is located in the d block on the periodic table, where the transition metals are also situated. Usually when calculating the number of neutrons for a specific atom, we would just subtract the number of protons from the atom mass of that element. However, when determining the number of neutrons for a copper atom, we must take into account that isotopes of copper vary in their number of neutrons because the periodic table records the average atomic mass of all the isotopes of copper based on each of their percent abundances. Isotopes are atoms which have the same atomic number but different mass numbers. While copper has an atomic mass of 63.546 on the periodic table, its’ two most stable isotopes are that of copper-63, and copper-65. Because copper-63 is closer to the actual average atomic mass of copper on the periodic table than is copper-65, we say that the copper-63 isotope is more abundant. The copper-63 isotope has a percent abundance of 69.17%, and it is made up of 29 protons, 29 electrons, and 34 neutrons. In contrast, the copper-65 isotope has a percent abundance of 30.83%, and is made up of 29 protons, 29 electrons, and 36 neutrons. Since atoms are electrically neutral, the number of protons will always be equivalent to the number of electrons …show more content…
Following the information we receive from the periodic table, the total number of electrons in a copper atom remains 29. This configuration shows how the 4s orbital is inhabited before the 3d orbital. However, the 3d orbital gains an electron from 4s so as to complete the 3d shell and make the atom more stable. Despite the 4s orbital having an unpaired electron after losing one electron to the 3d shell, we still say that the copper atom is diamagnetic. This is due to not only the electron completion of the 3d orbital, but also to the fact that the paired electrons of the 3d orbital overpower the unpaired electrons of the 4s orbital. The copper atom having a diamagnetic character serves as an exception to the rule that states that an atom is paramagnetic if there are unpaired electrons present. Usually, an atom is said to be diamagnetic only when all the electrons in the atom are paired. While diamagnetic atoms are unaffected by magnets, paramagnetic atoms tend to attract or be repelled by

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