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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Congress directed the U.S. Institute of Medicine to conduct a study of front-of-the-packagenutrition labeling. What did the scientific panel recommend?

a) Energy Star-like ratings should be used to identify healthy foods.

b) Front of the package nutrition labeling should be voluntary.

C) Front-of-the-package nutrition labeling should include nutrients to encourage.

D) Front-of-the-package nutrition labeling should include vitamins A and C.

A Energy Star-like ratings should be used to identify healthy foods.

The Facts Up Front nutrition labeling system shown was developed by the

a)Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

b)Grocery Manufacturers Association

C) U.S. Department of Agriculture.

D)U.S. Institute of Medicine.

B) Grocery Manufacturers Association

Facts Up Front labeling is

A) mandatory for all processed foods.

B) mandatory for processed foods produced by companies belonging to the Grocery Manufacturers Association.

C) mandatory for processed foods that exceed recommended limits for saturated fat, sodium, and sugars.

D) voluntary.

D) voluntary.

Facts Up Front labeling allows food manufacturers to list two “nutrients to encourage”. Asdiscussed in class, why is this controversial?

a) Manufacturers may be encouraged to excessively fortify foods with added nutrients.

B)The listed “nutrients to encourage” are not consistent between different food products.

C) The listed “nutrients to encourage” may be missing from the Nutrition Facts Label.

D) There are no “good” or “bad” nutrients.

a) Manufacturers may be encouraged to excessively fortify foods with added nutrients.

Peristalsis refers to

A) coordinated muscle contractions that propel food through the gastrointestinal tract.

B) food remaining too long in the stomach due to a weak sphincter.

C) gastric reflux due to excessive acid production.

D) rumbling sounds as fluid and gas move forward in the intestine.

A) coordinated muscle contractions that propel food through the gastrointestinal tract.

Heartburn is caused by

a) defective gastric proton pumps.

B insufficient gastrin secretion.

C) sphincter that fails to close completely.

D) sphincter that fails to open completely.

C) sphincter that fails to close completely.

A hormone that prepares your stomach for the arrival off ood

a. cortisol

b. gastrin

c. glucagon

d. vasopressin

b. gastrin

_______________ secreted by your stomach destroys some microorganisms ingested withyour food.

a) Gastrin

b) Hydrochloric acid

C) Intrinsic factor

D) Pepsin

b) Hydrochloric acid

In your stomach, an enzyme begins the digestion of _____________.

a. fiber

b. protein

c. starch

d. sugar

b. protein

This muscular valve controls the rate at which your stomach contents empty into your small intestine.

a) antrum

B) fundus

C) gastrin receptor

D) sphincter

D) sphincter

Which carbohydrate in Kashi® Roasted Almond Crunch CrunchyGranola Bars will slow stomach emptying the most?

a) insoluble fiber

B) soluble fiber

C) sugars

D) Others

B) soluble fiber

Which nutrient in the granola bars will slow stomach emptying the most?

a) fat

b) Protein

C) Sugars

D) other

a) Fat

most digestion will occur in the

a. mouth

b. esophagus

c. stomach

d. Small intestine

d. small intestine

A University of Missouri study compared a normal protein breakfast to a high proteinbreakfast in breakfast-skipping overweight teens. The high-protein breakfast

a. decreased daily food intake

b. decreased feelings of hunger

c. prevented gains in body fight

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

This organ produces bile needed for fat digestion and absorption

a. gallbladder

b. liver

c. pancreas

d. stomach

b. liver

Your ___ secretes bile when fat empties from your stomach into your small intestine.

a. gallbladder

b. liver

c. pancreas

d. spleen

a. gallbladder

Your __ secretes digestive enzymes that perform the chemical work of digestion.

a. gallbladder

b. liver

c. pancreas

d. spleen

c. pancreas

Sodium bicarbonate secreted by your ____________ neutralizes hydrochloric acid thatempties from your stomach.

a. gallbladder

b. liver

c. pancreas

d. spleen

c. pancreas

Most nutrient absorption occurs in the

a. colon

b. large intestine

c. small intestine

d. stomach

c. small intestine

Folds, villi, and microvilli, increase the ____ in the small intestine.

a. blood flow

b. lymph flow

c. mucus

d. surface area

d. surface area

if you drink a soft drink, the sugar that is absorbed will enter your blood and travel directly to your ____.

a. brain

b. liver

c. muscle

d. pancrease

b. liver

If you eat peanut butter, the fat that is absorbed will enter your

a. arteries

b. capillaries

c. lymph

d. venules

c. lymph

Transit time is needed for the

a. food to travel through the small intestine

b. food to travel through the large intestine

c. food to travel the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract from ingestion to excretion

d. the stomach to empty

c. food to travel the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract from ingestion to excretion

Which criteria determine if this herbal tea is truly probiotic?

a. it contains live bacteria

b. the strain of bacteria has a proven health benefit

c. when you prepare the tea, adequate numbers of bacteria survive

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

There is good evidence that giving probiotics to peoplewhen they start taking antibiotics may help prevent

a. allergic reactions.

b. antibiotic resistance.

c. diarrhea.

d. nausea.

c. diarrhea

Yoplait® Original Yogurt carries the Live & Active Culturesseal of the National Yogurt Association. This yogurt isconsidered probiotic because the live bacteria

a. boost immune function.

b. help to prevent milk allergy.

c. help to prevent upper respiratory infections.

d. provide a benefit for people who have difficulty digesting lactose.

d. provide a benefit for people who have difficulty digesting lactose

According to information presented in class, which statement applies to probioticsupplements such as Align®?

a. Their health benefits persist for weeks after taking the supplement.

b. They are safely used without medical supervision.

c. They are strictly regulated as drugs.

d. They may not be safe for people with serious illnesses.

d. They may not be safe for people with serious illnesse

All of these are monosaccharide sugars except

a. fructose

b. galactose

c. glucose

d. sucrose

d. sucrose

The major source o ffructose in the U.S. diet

a. cakes, cookies, and pies

b. fruit juice

c. sugar sweetened beverages

d. whole fruit

c. sugar sweetened beverages

This disaccharide sugar contains galactose

a. isomaltose

b. lactose

c. maltose

d. sucrose

b. lactose

In the U.S., sales of______________ will soon surpass sales of carbonated soft drinks.

a. bottled water

b. coffee

c. energy drinks

d. milk

a. bottled water

The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee recommended _____________as asubstitute for soft drinks.

a. diet soft drinks

b. fruit juice

c. milk

d. water

d. water

The Nutrition Facts shown are for an8.3 ounce can of Red Bull® Energy Drink.If you drink the entire can, you will consumethe equivalent of about _____ teaspoons ofgranulated white sugar. (27 g of sugar)

a. 3

b. 4

c. 7

d. 10

C. 7

Give up one daily 8.3 ounce can of RedBull® Energy Drink and at the end of oneyear you will save about _____ pounds of body fat.

a. 5

b. 7

c. 11

d. 18

c. 11

In a study presented in class, subjects ate the same calories from either jelly beans or soft drinks each day. What were the conclusions of the study?

a) Liquid calories evoke stronger satiety (fullness) signals.

B) Liquid calories evoke weaker satiety (fullness) signals.

C) Subjects get tired of jelly beans but not soft drinks.

D) Subjects get tired of soft drinks but not jelly beans.

B) Liquid calories evoke weaker satiety (fullness) signals.

In a study discussed in class, research subjects who swapped _____________ for softdrinks were more likely to lose a significant amount of weight than subjects who receivedinformation about weight loss without changing their drink habits.

a) coffee or tea

b. diet soft drinks or water

c. fruit juice

d. milk

b. diet soft drinks or water

There is a new health concern related to the low calorie sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin,and sucralose. In mice, these sweeteners

a. changed the microbes that inhabited their large intestines.

b. flattened the villi in their small intestines.

c. raised their blood triglyceride levels.

d. triggered gluten sensitivity.

a. changed the microbes that inhabited their large intestines.

In a study profiled on 60 Minutes, normal/overweight young adults who consumed 10%oftheir calories as beverages containing high fructose corn syrup had increased risk factorsfor ____________ within 2 weeks.

a. gum disease

b. heart disease

c. inflammation

d. obesity

b. heart disease

High sugar intakes are linked to this risk factor for heart disease

a. higher blood levels of triglycerides.

b. higher blood levels of small, dense LDL

c. lower blood levels of HDL cholesterol

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

According to the American Heart Association, too much added sugar increases your risk ofdying from

a. dementia.

b. heart disease

c. infectious disease.

d. kidney disease.

b. heart disease

As discussed in class, researchers gave overweight subjects high amounts of sugar(sucrose)-sweetened cola daily for 6 months. When compared to a control group, thesesubjects developed more

a. belly fat.

b. liver fat.

c. muscle fat.

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

When the body stores fat in liver cells, it is called

a. adipose fat.

b. brown fat.

c. ectopic fat.

d. sinusoidal fat.

c. ectopic fat

When the body stores fat in a layer beneath the skin, it is called

a. belly fat.

b. ectopic fat.

c. subcutaneous fat.

d. visceral fat.

c. subcutaneous fat

Fructose is used mostly by the __ and cannot enter most other types of cells.

a. brain

b. liver

c. muscle

d. pancreas

b. liver

The conversions of___ to liver fat is not tightly regulated

a. acetyl CoA

b. Citrate

c. Fructose

D. glucose

c. fructose

Excess fat stored in the liver increases the risk of

a. high blood triglyceride levels

b. loss of sensitivity to insulin

c. liver damage

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which contains the most fructose?

a. high fructose corn syrups

b. sucrose from sugar beets

c. sucrose from sugar cane

d. these added sugars all contain about the same amount of fructose

d. these added sugars all contain about the same amount of fructose

What determines the order of the ingredients in the ingredient list?

Ingredients are listed in descending order by in descendingorder by weight.

List the key changes that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is making to the Nutrition Facts label. How will consumers benefit from listing added sugars? Why is it challenging to evaluate added sugars using the ingredient list?

-Serving information is more prominent. Servingsizes are updated.

-Calories are emphasized with large bold text.“Calories from fat” are gone.

-Updated Daily Values.

-Added sugars are shown with % DV.

-Vitamins A and C have been removed; Vitamin Dand potassium have been added as nutrients that consumers are often lacking.

Identify 3 ingredients that contribute to the 14 grams of total sugars listed on the Nutrition Facts Label for a 5.3 oz container of Oikos Blueberry Greek Nonfat Yogurt.

Lactosein milk

Cane Sugar


The new DV for added sugars is based on the 2015 guidelines for Americans recommendations that calories from added sugars should not exceed ___% of total calories.


In 2009, congress directed the Institute of Medicine to complete a study of front-of-the-package labeling. What was the new strategy that was recommended for food labels? Have these recommendations been implemented?

Proposed Nutrition labeling with star-like ratings and front-of-the-package labeling that included calories per serving and rating of 0-3 points for low amounts of sodium, added sugars, and unhealthy fats

Describe the features of the industry-backed front-of-the-package nutrition labeling system called Facts UP Front. What was controversial about this system of nutrition labeling? Is the use of Facts UP Front voluntary or Mandatory?

Controversy: Industry-backed front-of-the package nutrition labeling. "it was a clever end-run around the FDA"

FactsUp Front simply repeats informationalready on the Nutrition Facts Panel without providing direct guidance aboutmaking healthier choices


Define "nutrient". Is water an essential nutrient?

Nutrients: Chemical substances in foods thatprovide energy and structure and help regulate body processes

Water is an essential nutrient

What is the distinction between digestion and intestinal absorption?

digestion: Theprocess by which food is broken down into small components small enough o beabsorbed into the body

absorption: the process by which substances cells lining thegastrointestinal tract and enter the blood or lymph

Describe the roles of the following components of digestive tract secretions:




1 )Mucus: provides moisture, lubrication,protection

2 )Enzymes: protein molecules that facilitatethe chemical breakdown of food.

3) Hormones: prepare different parts of thedigestive tract for the arrival of food

What is the term for the coordinated muscle contractions that propel foodthrough the gastrointestinal (GI) tract?


Define sphincter. How can a malfunctioning sphincter lead to heartburn?

Sphincter: A circular band of muscle that opensand closes to control the flow of materials of materials in the GI tract.

A weak sphincter isoften the culprit in heartburn. After food enters the stomach, the sphincter inthe lower esophagus should close. If it doesn’t, acid from the stomach can flow back into theesophagus (acid reflux)

Describe how the hormone gastrin prepares the stomach for the arrival offood. List two functions of the stomach. What is the role of pepsin?

Gastrin is a digestive hormone secreted by the stomach that stimulates enzyme and acid secretion in the stomach and stomach motility and emptying. Gastric secretions contain acid and enzyme, including pepsin, which is a protein-digesting enzyme secreted in gastric juice and activated by the stomach acid

Which factors affect the rate at which the stomach empties into the small intestine? Design a meal that would empty rapidly or slowly.

Pyloric sphincter: Helps regulate the rate atwhich chime enters the small intestine

The size and composition of a meal affect stomach emptying. Nutritional composition Fat (empties slowest) versus protein and carbohydrate (empties fastest)

What research supports a unique role for protein in satiety? Based on thelatest research, how much protein is recommended at breakfast to decreasehunger and prevent gains in body fat?

University of Missouri researchers assigned breakfast skipping overweight/obese teens to either continuing to skip, or eat a normal protein or high protein breakfast. Compared with continuing to skip breakfast, only the high protein breakfast prevented gains in body fat and decreased daily food intake and feelings of hunger.

Identify the organ where 95% of digestion occurs.

small intestine

How do the accessory organs, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas, participate in the digestion of food within the intestine?

Liver - produces bile needed for fat digestionand absorption

Gallbladder - stores and secretes bile ·

Pancreas ‒ secretes pancreatic juice: ‘

Which 3 structural features of the small intestine increase the surface areaavailable to contact nutrients to 600 times that of a simple tube?

Folds, Villi, and Microvilli

How do you define hunger? Food insecurity?

Hunger: feel or suffer hunger through lack of food.

Food Insecurity: the state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food.