Glucagon and insulin both regulate blood glucose levels. However, their effects are contrasting: glucose is a hyperglycemic hormone, whereas insulin is a hypoglycemic hormone.
A hyperglycemic hormone is a hormone that raises blood glucose levels. Glucagon acts as a hyperglycemic hormone because glucagon targets the liver to promote glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. (Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose; while gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrate molecules.) Once glucose is formed through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, the liver cells release glucose into the bloodstream.
A hypoglycemic hormone is a hormone that lowers blood glucose levels. Insulin acts as a hypoglycemic …show more content…
Bile functions as a fat emulsifier that breaks down fats into small particles. By making the fat into smaller particles, the fat can be digested. Bile has a composition of: cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, an assortment of electrolytes, water, bile salts, and bile pigments. (Bile salts are mainly cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids while bile pigment consists mostly of bilirubin.)
Some accessory organs associated with the small intestine play a role in bile production, storage, and concentration. The livers digestive function is to produce bile for transfer to the duodenum. In addition, the gallbladder stores any bile that is not needed for digestion and concentrates it by absorbing some of the water and …show more content…
These symptoms include painful urination (dysuria), frequent urination, and blood in the urine.
4b The scrotum is a sac of skin that suspends outside the abdominopelvic cavity of a male. Inside the scrotum is the testes. One function of the testes is the production of sperm, spermatogenesis. For spermatogenesis to occur, it is crucial that the scrotum holds the testes because viable sperm cannot be produced at body temperature. Instead, the scrotum allows a decrease in temperature that promotes the production of viable sperm.
5b The endometrium and myometrium are both located in the wall of the uterus. The endometrium is the inner layer of the uterus; while the myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall.
The endometrium is a highly vascular mucous membrane lining. During fetal development, the endometrium functions to provide nutrients to the embryo. However, if the oocyte is not fertilized during ovulation, the endometrium deteriorates during the menstrual phase. The endometrium is later repaired during the proliferative phase.
The myometrium is made up of smooth muscle and is highly muscular. The function of the myometrium is to contract during childbirth to expel the fetus from the