Analysis Of Type I And Type II Diabetes

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Audience and Purpose

The audience for this description is the population of Type I and Type II Diabetes, their caregivers, as well as general public interested in this process. The purpose of this technical document is to inform the audience, step by step, how Insulin Humalog works in lowering blood glucose levels, and therefore, to influence the diabetic readers to check their blood glucose levels before each meal, and to have their meals ready if this insulin is to be given.


Glucose, Insulin, and You. Insulin is the one of the many hormones produced in the human body, and it is extremely important for survival. It allows glucose (blood sugar) to get into the cells of muscle, fat, and the brain, and provide them with
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When glucose enters your bloodstream, the pancreas balances it with the right amount of insulin, so glucose is able to enter into your cells. However, this process doesn’t work this way for people with diabetes. In Type I Diabetes, the pancreas loses the ability to produce insulin, and in Type II Diabetes, the pancreas is not producing enough insulin to meet the body’s requirements. Additionally, cells can build a resistance to insulin in some people with Type II Diabetes.

Although, there could be insulin in the bloodstream, it is not sufficient to unlock cells to let glucose to enter. Consequently, it takes more insulin to find the right key to unlock the cells for glucose. When glucose cannot get into your cells, your cells lack the energy to keep your body working. You can experience nausea, weakness, or other neurological symptoms. At the same time, your glucose level rises in your blood stream. To prevent this from happening, an external supply of insulin is needed, as the people with diabetes must inject insulin, like insulin Humalog, several times per
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This process is called autophosphorylation.
• Further, this process sets off a cascade of reactions, passing the signal to the next step (Figure 6). The protein that adds a phosphate group to another protein is called a kinase, and this process is called phosphorylation.
• Furthermore, a kinase (PI3K), a very important compartment in this cascade of reactions, is involved in the transmission of the signal, as the signal is now related to the high level of blood glucose, and is transmitted from the outside to the inside of the cell.
• PI3K passes the signal further, and attracts the protein AKT, which is phosphorylated by the proteins mTOR and PDK1.
• GLUT-4 vesicle is held in a recycling state near the cell membrane until the protein that moves it becomes activated.
• Fully activated AKT reaches GLUT-4 vesicles, which then activates the protein, which moves GLUT-4 vesicles to the cell membrane.
• In the final step, many GLUT-4 vesicles get embedded in the cell membrane, which then merge and deposit large number of glucose transporters, and finally, the large quantities of glucose can move into the cells.

Figure 6 gives a great understanding of this complex

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