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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Female gonads? gametes?

Gonads = ovaries

Gametes = secondary oocytes --> ovum

Function of ovaries?

Produce gametes

Release hormones (progesterone, estrogen, relaxin, inhibin)

Broad vs Ovarian vs Suspensory ligaments

Broad: part of parietal peritoneum

Ovarian: ovary to uterus

Suspensory: ovary to pelvic wall (have vessels inside)

Ovary Structure?

Outside = germinal epithelium

Tunica albugenia: whitish, thick CT

Cortex: CT & follicles

Medulla: loose CT, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves

Ovarian arteries vs Ovarian veins vs Ovarian vessels

Ovarian arteries - direct off of abdominal aorta

Ovarian veins - R ends in IVC

L ends in L renal vein

Ovarian vessels = suspensory ligament

Fallopian Tube structure?





Where is fertilization most likely to occur? Ectopic pregnancy?

Ampulla of Fallopian tubes

Anywhere outside of uterine tubes


Histo of fallopian tubes?

Mucosa = epithelium + lamina propria

-Epithelium: Ciliated simple columnar

Nonciliated peg cells

Lamina propria (areolar)

Muscularis: thick inner circular, outer longitudinal


Uterus parts? Layers?

Parts: Fundus, body, cervix


-perimetrium (lined w serosa/ adventitia)

-becomes broad ligament laterally

-vesicouterine & rectouterine pouch

myometrium 3 layers of smooth muscle

-middle = circular


Rectouterine Pouch? Where? Also called? Made from?

Pouch of Douglas

Between uterus and rectum

Made from perimetrium of uterus

Vesico uterine pouch? Where? Made from?

Made from perimetrium of uterus

Anterior extension of perimetrium

Covers bladder


Stratum basalis: permanent

-provides stem cells for functionalis

-spiral arterioles

Stratum functionalis: sloughed off every month

-straight arterioles

Normal anatomical position of uterus?


Anteflexion: uterus body is bent forwards, over cervix

Vagina structure?

Adventitia - loose CT attaches it to surroundings


Muscularis - 2 layers smooth - inner circular, outer longitudinal

Mucosa: non-keratinized stratified squamous

-lamina propria


Where is clitoris located? What is homologous to?

Where labia minora meet

Homologous to glans penis

Glans clitoris? Prepuce of clitoris?

Glans = Exposed part of clitoris

- Body is hidden - contains 2 corpORA cavernosa

Prepuce = skin that covers body where labia minora meet

Uterine proplapse? AKA?


Loss of support by 1) cardinal lig 2)uterosacral lig 3)levator ani

uterus comes out of vagina

Mammary glands?

Modified sweat glands


15-25 lobules

Alveoli --> secondary tubules --> mammary ducts --> lactiferous sinus --> lactiferous duct

Ligaments holding up Uterus?

Broad ligaments: ext of peritoneum; attaches uterus to both sides of pelvic cavity

Uterosacral ligaments: connect uterus to sacrum; on either side of rectum

Cardinal / lateral cervical: connects cervix / vagina to pelvic walls

Round Ligaments: CT between broad ligament layers; uterus fundus to labia majora

Parts of vulva? What are they homologous to?

Mons pubis:

Labia Majora: Scrotum

Labia Minora: Spongy Urethra

Clitoris: Glans Penis

Vestibule: Membranous Urethra

Supporting Structures of uterus?

-Pelvic floor muscles : levator ani

-Perineal Body

-Uterosacral ligaments

-Round Ligaments

-Transverse cervical ligaments

Blood Supply

Fate of primordial germ cells?

Primordial germ cells --> diff into oogonia --> mitosis --> millions of germ cells --> atresia

Fate of germ cells?

Grow into larger primary oocytes

-stay in prophase 1 until puberty

-known as primary follicle

What are germ cells known as up until puberty?

Primary follicles

How many oocytes are present at different times in life?

Birth: 200K --> 2 million

Puberty: 40 K

Actually ovulated: 400

Fate of primary follicle?

Primary follicle --> meiosis 1 --> secondary follicle and 1st polar body

Secondary follicle --> meiosis 2 --> Graafian follicle --> ovulation --> release of secondary oocyte

Primary follicle vs Secondary Follicle

Primary follicle --> meiosis --> Secondary follicle

Secondary has fluid filled antrum

What stimulates release of FSH and LH?

GnRH - from hypothalamus

What do FSH and LH promote?

-Development of many primordial follicles

-Stimulate follicles to secrete estrogen

LH surge promotes what?


-Formation of corpus luteum

-secretes progesterone, estrogen, relaxin, inhibin until it becomes corpus albicans

Estrogen promotes ?

-Development of female repro strucures & secondary sex characteristics

-Protein anabolism (strong bones)

-Lowers blood cholesterol

-Inhibits GnRH FSH, LH

Progesterone promotes? secreted by?

Secreted by corpus luteum

- (along with estrogens) prepares uterus for fetus implantation

-inhibits GnRH, LH


Produced by corpus luteum

-Decreased myometrium contraction

At the end of pregnancy:

-Increases flexibility of pubic symphysis

-Dilates cervix

Inhibin? Secreted by?

Secreted by 1) Granulosa cells of growing follicles

2) Corpus luteum

-Inhibits secretion of FSH and LH

How long does female reproductive cycle last? What are the stages? How long do they last?

24-35 days

Menstruation 1-5

Pre Ovulatory 6-13

Ovulation 14

Post Ovulatory 15-28

Menstrual Phase? Events in uterus and ovaries?


- less pro and estrogen --> release of prostaglandins --> constriction of spiral arterioles --> no O2 --> stratum functionalis is shed


FSH --> many primordial follicles --> primary follicles --> secondary follicles

**takes many months

Pre Ovulatory Phase?

Uterus: aka Proliferative Phase

-Estrogens --> mitosis of stratum basalis --> Stratum functionalis is being repaired


secondary follicles release estrogen & inhibin --> dominant follicle secretes most inhibin and estrogen -->FSH decreases --> atresia

What is follicular phase?

Relative to ovaries

Menstrual + Preovulatory phases


Graafian follicle ruptures --> secondary oocyte is released

high amount of estrogen --> POSITIVE FEEDBACK on cells that release GnRH & LH--> LH surge -->

Post-ovulatory phase? AKA?

Most constant phase

In one ovary: aka Luteal Phase

-Graafian follicle --> corpus luteum (b/c of LH)

-progesterone, estrogen, inhibin and relaxin

Uterus: aka Secretory

-progesterone + estrogen --> growth of endometrium

-changes peak 1 week post ovulation - when ovum is supposed to get to uterus

-no fert --> dec prog + estrogen --> menses

Fate of corpus luteum if fertilized? if not?

No Fertillization --> dies in 2 weeks --> corpus albicans

-decreased estrogen --> GnRH, FSH, LH increases --> follicle growth starts again

Fertilization: --> outlives 2 weeks

-because chorion of embryo makes Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) --> stimulates corpus luteum