Key Events In Human Reproduction

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In this essay I will attempt to explain the key events in human reproduction and explain the male and female reproductive systems.
Both males and females require fully functioning reproductive systems in order to conceive naturally, I will first begin by explaining the male reproductive system, the testes are cradled within a ‘bag’ of skin called the scrotum, their two functions are to produce sperm cells and sex hormones. Next, the vas deferens. Sperm passes through the vas deferens to the urethra, whilst travelling through the vas deferens it mixes with a fluid containing nutrients for the sperm cells. This is secreted from the seminal vesicle and prostate gland, once the fluid and sperm mix, it is called semen. After this,
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However, if a woman doesn’t fall pregnant the cycle will begin again, this is known as the menstrual cycle. Days 1-13 of the cycle are called the Follicular phase. Primarily in this phase, the hormone Gonadotropin – releasing hormone (GNRH) is produced by the hypothalamus, stimulating the pituitary gland which in turn secretes the Follicle – stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH then travels through the blood to the ovaries, where it stimulates follicle growth around the oocyte. (Diagram 3). The developing follicle secretes oestrogen which then activates the generation of the endometrium, the increased levels of oestrogen cause the pituitary gland to secrete the Luteinising hormone (LH). This begins the second stage of the menstrual cycle. Ovulation takes place around day 14, LH secreted by the pituitary gland causes the oocyte to burst from the follicle. The ruptured follicle becomes the Corpus luteum which begins the Luteal phase of the cycle. This is day 15-28. The corpus luteum is maintained by the luteinising hormone, and produces progesterone. Progesterone is responsible for the proliferation of the uterus lining (endometrium). Progesterone also causes the formation of the nutrient fluid glands in the endometrium which excrete nutrients for the foetus during pregnancy. Progesterone causes the inhibition of FSH and LH, which then causes the …show more content…
However, fertilisation can take place during this process. Fertilisation is the joining of a male and female haploid gamete. Haploid means that the sex cell contains one half of the chromosomes (23 pairs) and half of the genetic information of the body cell. The female sex cell is the oocyte, and the male is the sperm cell. These join to form a diploid zygote, which has 46 chromosomes, two sets of 23 chromosomes from the male and female gamete. The zygote then goes on to become an embryo.
(BBC, fertilisation [No

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