Tornadotropin Case Studies

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a. The hormone that is evident in Maria’s urine is called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids (Primal Pictures). After fertilization, the egg moves through the fallopian tubes and into the uterus where it attaches to the wall of the uterus. Shortly after the implantation of the fertilized egg, the growing placenta starts to produce and release hCG into the bloodstream and urine (American Pregnancy Association). The pregnancy test Maria took was a urine test that detects the hCG hormone produced from her placenta which can detect pregnancy after the first missed period. The presence of hCG hormone in the urine is considered a positive sign of pregnancy. The level of …show more content…
In the middle of the menstrual cycle, the women’s ovaries release an egg. The ovaries produce and release female gametes and sex hormones. In the ovaries, the ovarian follicles are tiny sac like structures that hold a single primary oocyte (Primal Pictures). Every day, a bunch of follicles will begin a process of maturation but eventually only one follicle will end up supporting a single mature egg. The follicle will continue growing and eventually produce its own estrogen hormones (Primal Pictures). Following the follicular phase, there is a surge in levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) triggering the primary oocyte inside the follicle to start dividing again (Primal Pictures). After about 14 days, ovulation will vary from cycle to cycle; the egg inside the follicle becomes fully mature. The follicle pushes up against the ovary wall, ruptures and breaches the ovarian wall to eject a single mature oocyte from the ovary (Primal Pictures). The secondary oocyte leaves the ruptured follicle and moves into the peritoneal cavity through the stigma, where it is caught by visible fingerlike projects called fimbriae at the end of the fallopian tube (Primal Pictures). This process is called ovulation. The oocyte then travels down the women’s fallopian tube, which takes a couple days. While traveling through the fallopian tube, it might encounter sperm. Whether or not the egg is fertilized, it works its way down the fallopian tubes into the uterus. The average female reproductive cycle repeats approximately every 28 to 30 day, with ovulation occurring around day 14 of the 28-day cycle (Primal

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