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60 Cards in this Set

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BMI

weight (kg)/height^2 (m)



CO

HR X SV



PP

SBP - DBP

MAP

1/3 PP + DBP


or


((2 X DBP) + SBP)/3

WBGT

0.7 Twb + 0.2 Tg + 0.1 Tdb

Cut off at heat category 1

78-81.9 degree


Easy


water intake 1/2 quart per hour


no limit on work minutes
Mod


water intake 3/4 qt/hour


no limit of work min


Hard


water intake 3/4 quart/hour


40/20 min limit





in to m

1 in/0.0254 m



kg to lbs

2.21 lbs / 1 kg



Evaporation

Vaporization of sweat from the skin



most important means of heat loss during exercise (except swimming



1 L of sweat = loss 580 kcal




rate of evap depends on


temp and relative humidity


amnt of skin exposed


convective currents around the body (wind)

Convection

contact with air or water




method of gain or loss


heat transfer in air or water


forced convection--blowing fan increases the quantity of air to skin contact


important in exercise with swimming (cool or warm water)

Radiation

transfer of heat through waves




gain or loss of heat




absorbed from the sun and given off during exercise




important at rest in cool room, less during exercise

Conduction

transfer by direct contact




warming up a chair

VO2


peak vs VO2 max

Rate O2 is consumed in the body


peak: highest value of VO2 attained on a particular exercise test




VO2 max: highest VO2 deemed attainable by an individual

Type II

age of onset: >40


clinical onset: Gradual


Family history: yes


body comp: obese


blood insulin levels: normal or increased


cell insulin resistance: present


treatments: weight loss, diet, exercise, hyperglycemic drugs

Type I

age of onset: <35 years


clinical onset: abrupt


fam history: yes


body comp: normal or thin


blood insulin levels: reduced or absent


cell insulin resistance: absent or minor


treatments: insulin, diet, exercise

2 compartment models

skinfold


body density


Hydrostatic


body density


Bod Pod


Body volume



3 compartment models

DEXA


body density with fat, bone, and everything else

BIO Impedence

electrical resistance in body

Female Triad

eating disorder


menstrual dysfunction


amenorrhea in athlete


infertility usually reversible


alteration in lipoprotiens--> increases LDL and decreased HDL


decreased BMD due to loss of estrogen


Osteoporosis


osteopenia: -1 to -2.5


osteoporosis: < -2.5 BMD

Clinical trial of Female Triad

Luteinizing and Follicle stimulating hormones are low




estradiol and progesterone low




prolactin and androgen normal




cortisol elevated




thyroid hormones T3 and T4 low

DOMS

24-48 hours post exercise


48-72 hour duration


theory relates to micro-tears in the muscle and maybe connective tissue

genetics and training

men and women respond similarly to training programs




fiber type increases with different genetics




genetic predisposition accounts for 40-60% VO2max




mitochondria DNA is inherited from a single lineage from mom

sex differences in response to strength training

untrained males have greater absolute strength than untrained females




there does not appear to be sex difference in response to strength training

response to Endurance training


(5)

Adaptation--long term change in structure or fxn




changes to muscle cell


1. increased # of mitochondria


2. increased size of mitochondria


3. increased number of capillaries-->increased capillary density


4. decreased size of muscle fibers (slow and fast fibers)


conversion of fast to slow (IIa-->I)




5. increases in CO max and a--v O2 difference: increased max O2 uptake



Response to resistance training


(6)

primary response is increased strength




early responses-->neural




later responses-->hypertrophy of muscle



increased PC stores




increased ATPase, CPK, glycolysis enzyme activity




increased # of myofibrils per fiber, increased myosin




increased tendon strength, increased fibers

metabolic causes of fatigue


(100-200m)


(400-800m)

100-200 CP depletion


400-800 CP depletion and H accumulation



metabolic causes of fatigue


1500m

H accumulation



metabolic causes of fatigue


(5000+ m)

glycogen depletion



cardiopulmonary

capacity of the CV and pulmonary systems to maintain normal function for prolonged periods




components of fitness



Muscular Strength

capacity of a muscle or muscles to produce forces against a resistance




component of fitness



Muscular Power

capacity to produce a force over some distance in a specified time period




component of fitness



Muscular Endurance

capacity of a muscle or muscles to produce force for extended periods of time




component of fitness



Flexibility

component of fitness



body comp

proportion of fat and fat-free mass relative to total body mass




component of fitness



Components of Training


(4)

mode-- type of activity


running, swimming, etc




frequency--# of times per time period


2 times per week




Duration--amount of time per session


30 min




intensity--rate of work performed during each session or amount of effort given relative to max


speed, % max heart rate, %one rep

Principles of training


(4)

Overload--must stress system


Specificity--system responds to specific stresses


Reversibility-- detraining


Individuality--responses differ between people

Diagnosis of Obstructive Lung Disease

FEV1, PEFR, FEV1/FVC




FEV1/FVC ratio <.70 or 70%




measured FEV1/predicted FEV1 <.8

Diagnosis of Exercise Induced Asthma/Bronchoconstriction

drop in FEV1, PEFR >10%

Diagnosis of Restrictive Lung Disease

VC, IRV




Measured VC/Predicted VC <80%

Ejection Fraction

SV/EDV




great indicator of heart performance and disease prognosis




left ventricular norm is 62%


55% is cutoff for disease


increase with endurance training

ESV

volume at the end of systole-->end of ventricular contraction

EDV

volume at the end of diastole-->end of ventricular filling



MAP influencers

SV


EDV


ESV


EF



SV

EDV-ESV = SV



Endurance and hematocrit

increase plasma volume at rest

Acute and hematocrit

exercise leads to:


increased sweating and BP


plasma to intracellular space and fluid loss via evaporation


increases hematocrit




Increased BP causes kidneys to extract some fluid to regulate

Type I muscle fiber


(6)

rate of fatigue: slower and low


motor unit size: small


contractile speed: slow


Force production: low


mitochondrial number: high


capillaries: high



Type IIa muscle fiber


(6)

rate of fatigue: resistance


motor unit size: medium


contractile speed: fast


Force production: moderate


mitochondrial number:moderate


capillaries: moderate



Type IIb/x


(6)

fatigue: high


motor unit size: large


contractile speed: fast


Force production: high


mitochondrial number: low


capillaries: low

Work Treadmill

Body Mass X Distance X Grade = work


Body Mass X Velocity x Duration X grade = Work



Work units

Kgm, Kpm, N




(9.8 N/kpm)

Power units

kgm/min, kpm/min, watts




(6.12 kgm/min = 1 Watt)



Cycle Ergometer Work

Resistance (kp) X 6m/rev X # revolutions = work


(Kp) X 6m/rev X rev/min X duration = work

Power for Treadmill

Work/time = power


Velocity X grade X Body mass = Power



Power for Ergometer

Work/time = power


rev/min X kp X 6m/rev = power



Cori Cycle

1. lactate dehydrogenase-> pyruvate to krebs


2. heart has lactate dehydrogenase (can use pyruvate and use it aerobically)


3. liver can convert lactate to glucose through gluconeogenesis














exercise intensity 














exercise intensity