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60 Cards in this Set

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weight (kg)/height^2 (m)






1/3 PP + DBP


((2 X DBP) + SBP)/3


0.7 Twb + 0.2 Tg + 0.1 Tdb

Cut off at heat category 1

78-81.9 degree


water intake 1/2 quart per hour

no limit on work minutes

water intake 3/4 qt/hour

no limit of work min


water intake 3/4 quart/hour

40/20 min limit

in to m

1 in/0.0254 m

kg to lbs

2.21 lbs / 1 kg


Vaporization of sweat from the skin

most important means of heat loss during exercise (except swimming

1 L of sweat = loss 580 kcal

rate of evap depends on

temp and relative humidity

amnt of skin exposed

convective currents around the body (wind)


contact with air or water

method of gain or loss

heat transfer in air or water

forced convection--blowing fan increases the quantity of air to skin contact

important in exercise with swimming (cool or warm water)


transfer of heat through waves

gain or loss of heat

absorbed from the sun and given off during exercise

important at rest in cool room, less during exercise


transfer by direct contact

warming up a chair


peak vs VO2 max

Rate O2 is consumed in the body

peak: highest value of VO2 attained on a particular exercise test

VO2 max: highest VO2 deemed attainable by an individual

Type II

age of onset: >40

clinical onset: Gradual

Family history: yes

body comp: obese

blood insulin levels: normal or increased

cell insulin resistance: present

treatments: weight loss, diet, exercise, hyperglycemic drugs

Type I

age of onset: <35 years

clinical onset: abrupt

fam history: yes

body comp: normal or thin

blood insulin levels: reduced or absent

cell insulin resistance: absent or minor

treatments: insulin, diet, exercise

2 compartment models


body density


body density

Bod Pod

Body volume

3 compartment models


body density with fat, bone, and everything else

BIO Impedence

electrical resistance in body

Female Triad

eating disorder

menstrual dysfunction

amenorrhea in athlete

infertility usually reversible

alteration in lipoprotiens--> increases LDL and decreased HDL

decreased BMD due to loss of estrogen


osteopenia: -1 to -2.5

osteoporosis: < -2.5 BMD

Clinical trial of Female Triad

Luteinizing and Follicle stimulating hormones are low

estradiol and progesterone low

prolactin and androgen normal

cortisol elevated

thyroid hormones T3 and T4 low


24-48 hours post exercise

48-72 hour duration

theory relates to micro-tears in the muscle and maybe connective tissue

genetics and training

men and women respond similarly to training programs

fiber type increases with different genetics

genetic predisposition accounts for 40-60% VO2max

mitochondria DNA is inherited from a single lineage from mom

sex differences in response to strength training

untrained males have greater absolute strength than untrained females

there does not appear to be sex difference in response to strength training

response to Endurance training


Adaptation--long term change in structure or fxn

changes to muscle cell

1. increased # of mitochondria

2. increased size of mitochondria

3. increased number of capillaries-->increased capillary density

4. decreased size of muscle fibers (slow and fast fibers)

conversion of fast to slow (IIa-->I)

5. increases in CO max and a--v O2 difference: increased max O2 uptake

Response to resistance training


primary response is increased strength

early responses-->neural

later responses-->hypertrophy of muscle

increased PC stores

increased ATPase, CPK, glycolysis enzyme activity

increased # of myofibrils per fiber, increased myosin

increased tendon strength, increased fibers

metabolic causes of fatigue



100-200 CP depletion

400-800 CP depletion and H accumulation

metabolic causes of fatigue


H accumulation

metabolic causes of fatigue

(5000+ m)

glycogen depletion


capacity of the CV and pulmonary systems to maintain normal function for prolonged periods

components of fitness

Muscular Strength

capacity of a muscle or muscles to produce forces against a resistance

component of fitness

Muscular Power

capacity to produce a force over some distance in a specified time period

component of fitness

Muscular Endurance

capacity of a muscle or muscles to produce force for extended periods of time

component of fitness


component of fitness

body comp

proportion of fat and fat-free mass relative to total body mass

component of fitness

Components of Training


mode-- type of activity

running, swimming, etc

frequency--# of times per time period

2 times per week

Duration--amount of time per session

30 min

intensity--rate of work performed during each session or amount of effort given relative to max

speed, % max heart rate, %one rep

Principles of training


Overload--must stress system

Specificity--system responds to specific stresses

Reversibility-- detraining

Individuality--responses differ between people

Diagnosis of Obstructive Lung Disease


FEV1/FVC ratio <.70 or 70%

measured FEV1/predicted FEV1 <.8

Diagnosis of Exercise Induced Asthma/Bronchoconstriction

drop in FEV1, PEFR >10%

Diagnosis of Restrictive Lung Disease


Measured VC/Predicted VC <80%

Ejection Fraction


great indicator of heart performance and disease prognosis

left ventricular norm is 62%

55% is cutoff for disease

increase with endurance training


volume at the end of systole-->end of ventricular contraction


volume at the end of diastole-->end of ventricular filling

MAP influencers







Endurance and hematocrit

increase plasma volume at rest

Acute and hematocrit

exercise leads to:

increased sweating and BP

plasma to intracellular space and fluid loss via evaporation

increases hematocrit

Increased BP causes kidneys to extract some fluid to regulate

Type I muscle fiber


rate of fatigue: slower and low

motor unit size: small

contractile speed: slow

Force production: low

mitochondrial number: high

capillaries: high

Type IIa muscle fiber


rate of fatigue: resistance

motor unit size: medium

contractile speed: fast

Force production: moderate

mitochondrial number:moderate

capillaries: moderate

Type IIb/x


fatigue: high

motor unit size: large

contractile speed: fast

Force production: high

mitochondrial number: low

capillaries: low

Work Treadmill

Body Mass X Distance X Grade = work

Body Mass X Velocity x Duration X grade = Work

Work units

Kgm, Kpm, N

(9.8 N/kpm)

Power units

kgm/min, kpm/min, watts

(6.12 kgm/min = 1 Watt)

Cycle Ergometer Work

Resistance (kp) X 6m/rev X # revolutions = work

(Kp) X 6m/rev X rev/min X duration = work

Power for Treadmill

Work/time = power

Velocity X grade X Body mass = Power

Power for Ergometer

Work/time = power

rev/min X kp X 6m/rev = power

Cori Cycle

1. lactate dehydrogenase-> pyruvate to krebs

2. heart has lactate dehydrogenase (can use pyruvate and use it aerobically)

3. liver can convert lactate to glucose through gluconeogenesis

exercise intensity 

exercise intensity