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139 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The human brain is unique in that...

It develops so slowly

Both autism and William's Syndrome is associated with...

Mental Retardation

Experiences that permit information in the brain genetic programs to be expressed and maintained are called...

Permissive experiences

Synaptic density in the primary visual cortex of infants...

is maintained by the seventh or eight postnatal month and then it declines

Although they have many cognitive problems, William's people have good...

Language abilities

The postnatal growth of the human brain results from...

Synaptogenesis and myelination

In a classic study, the area of right somatosensory cortex receiving inout from the left hand was found to be bigger in...

Musician's who fingered stringed instruments with the left hand

The case of Genie emphasizes the role of...

Experience in human neural and psychologic development

The first evidence that new neurons can be created in the brains of adult vertebrates came in the 1980's study of...


The function of the neurons created in the adult hippocampus by neurogenesis is...

currently unknown

Several studies have shown that early mystic training increases the size of the...

Auditory cortex that responds to the complex musical tones

Most cases of William's Syndrome are associated with...

A missing section of chromosome 7

Reduced ability to interpret emotions and intentions of intentions of others as well as reduced capacity for social interaction and communication are both symptoms of...


An infant has object permanence and is shown that a toy is placed under a blanket to his left. He lifts up the blanket to find the toy and is correct. After multiple trials, the experimenter then places the toy under the blanket to the baby's right. The baby keeps looking under the blanket to the left. This is example of...


Evidence suggests that autism...

Is caused by several genes and interactions with the environment

A professor in the middle of a lecture buttoned his shirt and rebutted it several times in rapid succession, started to sing, and then ran out of the room. He was discovered hours later seeing in the rain on a bench in front of the university library. He could not remember his classroom behavior, and he had no idea how he had fallen asleep in the rain. The professor may have experienced...

a complex partial seizure

What percentage of people carrying the Huntington's gene develop the disorder?


Wich general class of drugs is useful in treating Parkinson's disease?

Dopamine agents

Rakmachandran found that the experience of phantom limbs did not come from the nerves of the amputated limbs; they came from the

Part of the body that now activated the area of somatosensory cortex that formerly received input from the amputated limb.

Which of the following is most likely to lead to an intracerebral hemorrhage?

A bursting aneurysm

Both thromboses and emboluses are

Plugs that block blood flow

Given the cascade of events leading to ischemia-produced brain damage, __________ antagonists administered immediately after a stroke might reduce the development of brain damage


Phillip suffered great pain in the elbow of his phantom arm, which seemed to be locked in an awkward position. Rakmachandran successfully treated him by...

Having him make synchronous, bilaterally symmetrical movements of "both arms" while directly viewing his good arm and a mirror image of it

Currently, the majority of neuroscientists assume that the primary characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is the development of...

Amyloid plaques

Which the of tumor would most easy to localize in a CT scan or brain section?

An encapsulated tumor

Who is more likely to develop multiple sclerosis?

A female caucasian

Which of the following have been shown to be beneficial in several animal models of human neurological disorders?

Enriched environments

With respect to epilepsy, clonus is to tons as...

Tremor is to rigidity

A disorder in which fat deposits cause the walls of blood vessels to thicken and reduce blood flow is...


A progressive disorder that often involves complex, involuntary, jerky, writhing movements of entire limbs and severe mental deterioration is...

Huntington's Disease

In one study of unilateral patients, practice with the disabled arm had greater beneficial effect if...

The other arm was tied down

The word "crackpot" originally referred to people suffering from...

Lead Poisoning

Rabies is caused by...

A virus

What percentage of amputees experience chronic, severe phantom-limb pain?

About 50%

In a car accident, a woman banged the from of her head on the steering wheel. A subsequent CT scan revealed a subdural hematoma over the left occipital lobe. The woman clearly had suffered a...

Both countrecoup injury and contusion

Which structure is thought to store memories for visual images?

Inferotemporal cortex

One patient with prefrontal damage could not cook a meal because she could not...

Carry out the various steps involved in preparing a meal in proper sequences...

On which of the following tests did H.M. display substantial long-term memory as indicated by improved performance?

Pavlovian conditioning test

According to the text, the scientific evidence that has not proven the effectiveness of...


Hippocampal lesions in rats disrupt the performance of tasks that involve memory for...

Spatial location

Electroconvulsive shock is commonly used in studies of memory because it...

has amnesic effects to those produced by concussion

One major difference between amnesia associated with advanced Korsakoff's syndrome and that associated with the bilateral temporal lobe damage patients with advanced Korsakoff's syndrome have and that associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe damage is that patients with advanced Korsakoff's syndrome have...

A retrograde amnesia that can extend back into childhood

The reduction of cholinergic activity in the brains of predementia Alzheimer's patients results from damage in the...

Basal forebrain

In the brain of Alzheimer's patients, the level of __________ is greatly reduced resulting from degeneration of the basal forebrain.


Heres an illustration of coronal section of a monkey brain cut through the hippocampus and amygdala. The shaded area indicates the position of the...

Heres an illustration of coronal section of a monkey brain cut through the hippocampus and amygdala. The shaded area indicates the position of the...

Rhinal cortex portion of the medial temporal cortex

K.C., the man who can't time travel, experienced a severe deficit in _________ memory.


H.M.'s greatest post surgical problem was his...

Anterograde amnesia

The main reason why LTP is one of the most widely studied neuroscientific phenomena is that it...

Involves a synaptic change similar to the synaptic change that has been hypothesized to be the basis of memory storage.

The mediodorsal nuclei, which are often damaged in cases of Korsakoff's amnesia, are nuclei of the...


Co-occurence has been shown to be critical for the induction of LTP. Co-occurence refers to the requirement for simultaneous activity in...

Presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons

Currently, consolidation is thought to last...

A very long time, if not indefinitely

When rats are not sure where they are, their place cells fire in accordance with where they...

"Think" they are

The shades areas on this drawing of the inferior surface of the brain illustrate the position of the...

The shades areas on this drawing of the inferior surface of the brain illustrate the position of the...

Medial temporal lobes

The tests commonly used to assess implicit memory in neuropsychological patients are...

Repetition priming tests

Because H.M.'s surgery seemed to disrupt only those retrograde memories acquired shortly before his surgery, it was widely believed that the hippocampus...

Temporarily stores memories before they are transferred to a more permanent storage site

Symptoms of closed-head injuries

vomiting,difficulty tolerating bright lights,leaking cerebrospinal fluide from the ear or nose,bleeding from the ear,speech difficulty,paralysis,difficulty swallowing, andnumbness of the body.

Types of strokes

Ischemic (Clots) - occurs as a result of an obstruction within a blood vessel supplying blood to the brain. It accounts for 87 percent of all stroke cases.

Hemorrhagic (Bleeds) - Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened blood vessel ruptures. Two types of weakened blood vessels usually cause hemorrhagic stroke: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). But the most common cause of hemorrhagic stroke is uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure).

TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack) - caused by a temporary clot. Often called a “mini stroke”, these warning strokes should be taken very seriously.

Where does neurogenesis occur?

Dentate gyrus in hippocampus

Treatments for stroke survivors

- Anticoagulants/Antiplatelets: Antiplatelet agents such as aspirin and anticoagulants, such as warfarin, interfere with the blood's ability to clot and can play an important role in preventing stroke

- Antihypertensives: Antihypertensives are medications that treat high blood pressure. Depending on the type of medication, they can lower blood pressure by opening the blood vessels, decreasing blood volume or decreasing the rate and/or force of heart contraction

- Carotid Endarterectomy: Carotid endarterectomy, also called carotid artery surgery, is a procedure in which blood vessel blockage (fatty plaque) is surgically removed from the carotid artery.

- Angioplasty/Stents: Doctors sometimes use balloon angioplasty and implantable steel screens called stents to treat cardiovascular disease and help open up the blocked blood vessel

H.M. study case

Suffered epileptic seizures after falling off a bike when 7. Doctors assumed seizures were related to the accident, as he became increasingly incapacitated. At 27, H.M. was operated on by William Scoville; purpose of experimental surgery was to stop seizuresTissue from the temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, was removed on both sides of his brain.After the operation H.M. suffered from amnesia and could not create episodic or semantic memories. He was able to learn a few procedural memories. His Personality unchanged and intellectual abilities wereleft intact.

What was the Significance of the H.M. Case Study?

It shows both the role of hippocampus in memory processing and in the storage of new memories

What does the Case Study of H.M. Show about Brain Localization?

Hippocampus and surrounding areas play critical role in converting memories of experiences from short term memory to long term memory

What does the Case Study of H.M. Show about the Brain's Memory System?

As H.M. could retain memories of what happened before the accident, it indicates hippocampus is a temporary memory storeH.M. could also form new procedural memories, so these also are not stored in the hippocampus and, since H.M. and other amnesiacs had deficits in one part of the memory system but not others, this is evidence that the brain has several memory systems that are localized in different parts of the brain/Finally, it shows memory processes are more complex than previously thought; while the hippocampus is important in the storage of new memories, It is not the only structure involved in the process

Evaluating the H.M. Case Study, what have we learned about Brain Structure?

The medial temporal lobes are important in the formation, organization, consolidation and retrieval of memories. Cortical areas are important for long term memories. Facts and events (semantic and episodic memories).

Case Study: Henry Molaison

Has intractable temporal lobe epilepsy so had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy which removed most of the anterior temporal lobe including much of the amygdala and hippocampus on both sides

What H.M Loss

1.) Bilateral loss of parahippocampus

2.) Bilateral damage of entorhinal cortex

3.) Bilateral damage of hippocampus

4.) Bilateral damage of amygdala

What H.M can do and not do

1.) Short-term memory is okay

2.) intelligence is okay- stayed the same

3.) Can learn to do new tasks (ex mirror tracing) 4.) Does not know he knows how to do a new task

5.) Verbal memory is impaired 6.) Essentially makes no new declarative memories

H.M memory loss

Relatively pure anterograde amnesia, most of the old memories remained intact but he had lost the a ability to form new memories

H.M and memory (declartive vs non)

Henry was still capable of nondelcarative memory which was exemplified by mirror tracing but was unable to form new declarative memories


Severe impairment of memory

Retrograde amnesia

Difficulty in retrieving memories formed before the onset of amnesia, inability to recall old memories, retrieval problems, loss of memories formed prior to an event (such as surgery or trauma)

Anterograde Amnesia

The inability to form new memories beginning with the onset of disorder, could be a consolidation problem or retrieval problem for new memories -what patient H.M had

Episodic memory

Memory of a particular incident or a particular time and place, detailed autobiographical declarative memory ex: remembering your first day in school

Semantic memory

Generalized declarative memory, ex knowing the meaning of a word without knowing where or when you learned that word, ex: knowing the capital of France

Case Study Patient K.C Background

sustained brain damage in a motorcycle accident, A patient who sustained damage to the cortex that renders him unable to form and retrieve new episodic memories especially autobiographical memories

Patient K.C Memory loss

Can no longer retrieve any personal memory of his past, although general knowledge remains good *can converses easily and pay chess but cannot remember where he learned to play chess *K.C can acquire new semantic knowledge but cannot acquire new episodic knowledge*Anterograde declarative amnesia and loss of entire autobiographical memory

What was damaged with K.C

he had extensive damage to the left frontoparietal and the right parieto-occipital cerebral cortex, and severe shrinkage of the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex

What we learned from K.C

The bilateral hippocampal damage, same with H.M probs accounts for K.C's anterograde declarative amnesia, but not for the selective loss of nearly his entire autobiographical memory -So his cortical injuries must relate to his lose of episodic memory

Working Memory Brian Structures

-Prefrontal cortex (connects to parietal ctx, subcortical areas) -in rhesus monkey, dorsal principal sulcus of the frontal lobe

Working Memory

A buffer that hold memories available to ready access during performance of a task, where we hold information while we are working with it to solve a problem or are otherwise actively manipulating the info

R.B.: hippocampus for forming new declarative memories

-Had bilateral lesion of hippocampus due to surgery-Post-lesion (new) declarative memory: first study done, asked to read short passage and then recall it 10 minutes later→ R.B. scored extremely low compared to controls and alcoholics -Pre-lesion (old) declarative memory: 2nd study done, asked for short answer to questions about public events→ R.B.'s memory NORMAL (could argue better than controls) -Conclusion: hippocampus (part of medial temporal lobes) is important for new, BUT NOT OLD, declarative memories

During infancy, rapid increased production of synapses so that neurons are communicating more effectively is called ______


Enriched vs isolate environments


- Increases neurogenesis

-Thicker cerebral cortex


Growth and development of brain tissue


process of forming a myelin sheath around a nerve to allow nerve impulses to move more quickly

order of neurodevelopment stages.

1) neurogenesis,

2) neuronal migration and differentiation,

3) myelination,

4) synaptogenesis,

5) pruning

what is the process of neurogenesis

ventricular zone is where neural progenitors are "born" and start theirmigration (derived from stem cells). At core of neural tube, bordering CSF.

one month

raises head slightly off floor when on stomach

two months


follows moving person with eyes; occasional smile


Posterior fontanel closes

three months

lifts head and chest while on stomach and can coo

four months

rolls side to side

six months

sits with minimal support....rolls back to stomach grasps objects hand to hand

nine months

sits alone....changes position without falling...says ma ma and ba ba

Neu­ro­plas­tic­ity occurs in the brain:

1– At the begin­ning of life: when the imma­ture brain orga­nizes itself.

2– In case of brain injury: to com­pen­sate for lost func­tions or max­i­mize remain­ing functions.

3– Through adult­hood: when­ever some­thing new is learned and memorized

Changes asso­ci­ated with learn­ing occur mostly at the level of the con­nec­tions between neu­rons. New con­nec­tions can form and the inter­nal struc­ture of the exist­ing synapses can change.

Symptoms of Autism

-Quantitative and qualitative deficits in social and emotional development.

- deficits include difficulties in differentiating between social and nonsocial stimuli.

Social - Marked Impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors- Failure to develop peer relationships - Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests or achievements with other people- Lack of social or emotional reciprocity

Communication - Delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language;- Marked impairment in ability to initiate or sustain a conversation (for individuals with adequate speech);- Stereotyped, repetitive or idiosyncratic language. - Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play.

symptoms of williams syndrome

STRENGTHS-well developed language skills-musical skills-social interactions-strong face-processing abilities

WEAKNESSES-intellectual disability-poor spatial cognition*good at face, auditory and musical processing (preserved temporal)*not as good as visuo-spatial skills (damaged parietal and occipital)

Critical Period

a stage in development when the organism normally acquires a trait; acquiring outside this stage may be IMPOSSIBLE


a "critical period" where an organism forms attachments and form it's own identity

Sensitive Period

a stage in an organisms development when it normally acquires traits; if acquired outside this period is not completely impossible for them to develop it (it's more sensitive at that time)

Prefrontal Cortex

problem solving, decision making, goal directed behaviour, reasoning, planning, social control


tumors that grow between the meninges. account for 20% of the cases.

encapsulated tumor

tumors that grow within their own membrane. e.g. all meningiomas

benign tumor

tumors that are surgically removable with little risk of further growth in the body

infiltrating tumors

tumors those that grow diffusely through surrounding tissue

malignant tumor

difficult to remove or destroy them completely, any cancerous tissue that remains after surgery continues to grow.

metastatic tumor

tumors originate at other body part and transfer to brain through blood vessel.

partial seizure

a seizure that does not involve the entire brain.

simple partial seizures

partial seizures whose symptoms are primarily sensory or motor

complex partial seizures

often restrict to temporal lobes.

Grand mal

big trouble seizure. loss of consciousness, loss of equilibrium and a violent tonic-clonic convulsion.

petit mal

small trouble seizure, no convulsions. a disruption of consciousness that is associated with a cessation of ongoing behavior.

Parkinson's disease

movement disorder of middle and old age that affects 1-2 % of the elderly population. 2.5 more prevalent in males than in females.

Alzheimer's disease

the most common cause of dementia. 10% of popultion over the age of 65.


inflammation of the meninges, fatal in 25% of adults.


-caused by brain cell death

Which of the following has not been implicated as a possible cause of dementia?

Axon-depleting cytosis

Embryonic cells

have the potential for unlimited renewal and have the ability to develop into different kinds of mature cells if they are transplanted to different sites are often called embryonic stem cells

hippocampus(parts of the brain)

part of the brain used for encoding memory, damage to it can cause anterograde amnesia

-brain, encoding

-Think of hippos at a college campus studying.

Medial temproal lobes(parts of the brain)

Medial temproal lobes(parts of the brain)

-subcortical region in the temporal lobe of the brain associated with memory and learning. Damage can cause anterograde amnesia

-anterograde amnesia, amnesia

Amnesic syndrome(memory disorders)

-impairment of encoding semantic or episodic memories, while everything else remains the same.

-amnesia, anterograde amnesia

Anosognosia(memory disorders)

-failure to become aware of memory deficits


Retrograde amnesia(memory disorders)

-patients can't remember anything before brain damage

Korsakoff's disease

alcohol-induced severe amnesia. Usually involves anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia, anosognosia, and confabulation-amnesia, alcohol

Confabulation(memory disorder)

-when amnesic patients unkowingly lie about their past due to not remembering it that well. -amnesia, retrograde amnesia

Source amnesia(memory disorder)

-inability to correctly recall where you learned something

-basically everything I know, I can't remember where I learned it.

Transient global amnesia(Memory disorder)

-rare form of amnesia that only lasts for a couple of hours

-anterograde amnesia

Dissociative amnesia(memory disorder)

-Loss of memory over a traumatic event

Repression(memory disorder)

-forced forgetting of a stressful event

Medial temporal lobe amnesia

amnesia associated with bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobes; its major feature is anterograde amnesia for explicit memories in combination with preserved intellectual functioning

posttraumatic amnesia (PTA)

amnesia following a nonpenetrating blow to the head

place cells

neurons that respond only when a subject is in specific locations

grid cells

entorhinal neurons that each have an extensive array of evenly spaced fields, producing a pattern reminiscent of graph paper

specialization of the hippocampus

is memory for spatial location.

Spatial view cells

Place cells are activated by where a primate is looking, and where they think they are in the environment, therefore they are also called ___ ___ ___

Concept Cells

Cells that respond to ideas or concepts rather than particulars

How was LTP induced?

Gradual strengthening of neural connections among neurons; it is introduced by tetanus exposure to a stimuli so that a connection is made

It leads to growth of dendrites and enlargement of dendrite spins. Also, increases the number of excitatory receptors

It enhances the building of new memories and also keeps memories in LTM for longer because of stronger connections

What is a tetanus?

the prolonged contraction of a muscle caused by rapidly repeated stimuli.

Split-brain effect

What you see in your left visual field will be processed in the right hemisphere and vice versa


Enhance mental performance, smart drugs

-How do they work:

1. Increase metabolism in circulation

2. Protect the brain from physical and chemical change